POST-COLD WAR

1990s

General

A - J

Banford, Harry C. "Meteoric Changes Forecast In Intelligence Processes." Signal, Jul. 1991, 89 ff.

Best, Richard A., Jr., and Mark M. Lowenthal. The U.S. Intelligence Community and the Counternarcotics Effort. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1992.

Blum, Justin. "Altering Assassination Ban Might Increase Pressure on Saddam Hussein, Robb Says." Washington Post, 19 Feb. 1998, A22. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

Boren, David L. "The Role of Intelligence: [Remarks at] A Roundtable." In Preparing America's Foreign Policy for the 21st Century, eds. David L. Boren and Edward J. Perkins. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Busey, James B., IV [ADM/USN (Ret.)].

1. "U.S. Intelligence Community Confronting New Structure, Missions and Leadership." Signal, Feb. 1993, 15 ff. [http://www.us.net/signal]

2. and Clarence A. Robinson, Jr. "Facing Turbulence, Intelligence Community Revamps Internally." Signal, Apr. 1995, 48 ff. [http://www.us.net/signal]

Carlucci, Frank C. "Former Defense Secretary Comments on Significant Events in USSR." Periscope 15, no. 2 (1990): 1-4.

Petersen: "Former DDCI covers intelligence matters in an address of June 4, 1990."

Cline, Ray S. "Intelligence Activities Across the Board." Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 9, no. 4 (1990): 7.

DeConcini, Dennis. "Congressional Perspective: Alternative Grand Strategies and Intelligence Implications." Comparative Strategy 14, no. 4 (Oct. 1995): 425-429.

Dornan, Diane. "Isolationism, Internationalism and the Future of U.S. Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 13, no. 3 (Summer 1992): 39-46.

The author served on the HPSCI Staff from 1985.

Elliott, Ronald D. "Agile Intelligence Enterprise Offers Requisite Flexibility." Signal, Oct. 1998, 79-81.

"The intelligence community and its components must work together as a single enterprise to achieve the agility needed to address the chaotic international environment and myriad challenges of the 21st century."

Emerson, Steven. "Where Have All the Spies Gone?" New York Times Magazine, 12 Aug. 1990, 16-21, 28-30.

Ennis, Michael E. [BGEN/USMC]

1. "The Future of Intelligence." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 16, no. 4 (Oct. 2000): 1-2.

The Intelligence Community "should focus more of its effort on ... 'operationalizing' intelligence -- that is, making it more usable, understandable, and accessible to its consumers, the operators and planners.... [T]he first step in operationalizing intelligence needs to be a physical integration of intelligence personnel within critical warfighting functions.... The second step ... is to build intelligence products with the end user (the operator/planner) in mind.... The last step ... is for the commanders to take a more active role in intelligence."

2. "The Future of Intelligence." Marine Corps Gazette, Oct. 1999, 46-47.

An earlier version of the above.

Ermarth, Fritz W. "Seeing Russia Plain: The Russian Crisis and American Intelligence." The National Interest, Spring 1999, 5-14.

Sorting out the political and economic situation in today's Russia "is a mighty challenge for analysis, policymaking and investment.... Russian crime and corruption are deeply embedded in the failure of Russia to advance toward real democracy and capitalism since 1991, as cause, consequence, and symbol of Russian realities.... They are pervasive in government, politics, business, and security affairs; even foreign relations are affected." In the last years of the Soviet regime, "intelligence, business, politics and crime blurred indistinguishably into each other....

"American intelligence analysts and policymakers should have known about the Russian crime and corruption problem as a threat to reform and as a challenge to our grasp of Russian realities. Indeed, a fine analysis was done by the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research in April 1992. But subsequently, neither American intelligence analysis nor American policymakers adequately appreciated the crime and corruption problem.... The recipients evidently did not want to hear" about the corruption of high Russian figures.

"Intelligence analysis brought its own vulnerabilities to the table, first, in the form of a post-Cold War agenda that has become ever more operational (i.e., supportive of daily business) rather than focusing on understanding the big picture; and second, a management code that prizes above all serving -- which can easily degenerate into pleasing -- the customer. Our policymakers did not much want, and our intelligence analysts had little incentive to provide, a big-picture, long-term assessment of Russian realities....

"In the end, these failings did not, I believe, have a direct impact on U.S. policy. Rather, they represented some participation by U.S. intelligence analysis in a general pattern of overlooking the darker sides of Russian realities."

Fein, Bruce E. "Official Secrecy and Deception Are Not Always Bad Things." Insight, 8 Jun. 1992, 23-24.

Gates, Robert M. "Intelligence, Democracy and Freedom." Presidential Studies Quarterly 22, no. 2 (Jun. 1992): 231-237.

Gertz, Bill. "Russians Told to Cut Number of Spies in America," Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 2-8 Aug. 1999, 14.

According to "administration officials," U.S. Ambasador James Collins has told Vladimir Putin, "Russia's top Security Council adviser," that Russia must "voluntarily reduce the large number of intelligence officers operating in the United States or face cutbacks in diplomatic positions or expulsions."

Gibbs, David N. "Secrecy and International Relations." Journal of Peace Research 32, no. 2 (1995): 213-228.

Glickman, Dan. "Intelligence After the Cold War." Kansas Journal of Law and Public Policy 3, no. 2 (Winter 1993): 142-147.

Gordon, Michael R. "Russia Ousts U.S. Officer as Ties Sour Over Kosovo." New York Times, 4 Jul. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

The assistant Army attache at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, Lt. Col. Peter Hoffman, has been declared persona non grata; he departed Russia on 1 July 1999. The Russian action is seen as "a fresh sign of the tensions that have grown between the United States and Russia since the war in Kosovo."

Goss, Porter J. "Representative Porter Goss Responds to CIA Critics." National Security Law Report 18, no. 8 (Dec. 1996): 1, 8-11.

Excerpts of remarks by Representative Goss (R-FL) to ABA Standing Committee on Law and National Security's Review of the Field Conference in Washington, DC, 10 December 1996. Goss expresses his belief that the Intelligence Community "is under relentless attack by the media." Many of the reports are wrong, but they are also impossible to answer. Goss also comments on the continuing need for intelligence and the requirement that intelligence and law enforcement work together.

Hall, Keith. "Challenges Faced by U.S. Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 11, no. 3 (1990): 1-3.

Henderson, Robert D'A. "Future of Ex-Eastern Bloc Intelligence Personnel." Commentary 4 (Jul. 1990): 1-7.

Henderson discusses the "options for those intelligence officers who have specialized skills in information collection, analysis, and asset protection and in clandestine operations skills, when their services are dismantled."

Henderson, Robert D'A. "Intelligence Needs of Newly Industrializing Countries in the 1990s." Commentary 19 (Mar. 1992): 1-7.

"There is a growing perception in the Third World developing countries ... that their national survival depends on advanced technologies and international commercial data to increase their economic capacity and competitiveness.... Where access to sought-after technology has been restricted, the technology dependent -- or the technology-lacking -- countries have reverted to clandestine means."

Holden-Rhodes, James F. "Kim Revisited: Human Intelligence and Drug Trafficking." American Intelligence Journal 14, no 1 (Autumn/Winter 1993): 33-36.

The author argues that U.S. counterdrug "efforts to date have been predictable and costly, and have shown little return on investment," and points to the "failure of DoD elements to provide support to drug law enforcement agencies that is usable."

Jehl, Douglas. "Nominee for C.I.A., in Controversy, Abandons His Bid." New York Times, 11, Mar. 1995, 1.

Facing criticism about his hiring of domstic laborers, Air Force General Michael Carns withdraws his nomination to be DCI.

Johnson, Loch K., and Kevin J. Scheid. "Spending for Spies: Intelligence Budgeting in the Aftermath of the Cold War." Public Budgeting & Finance 17, no. 4 (Dec. 1997): 7-27.

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