FRANCE

Historical

Bély, Lucien. Espions et ambassadeurs au temps ve Louis XIV. [Spies and Ambassadors in the Time of Louis XIV] Paris: Fayard, 1990. [Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008)]

Burger, P. "Spymaster to Louis XIV: A Study of the Papers of the Abbé Eusèbe Renaudot." In Ideology and Conspiracy: Aspects of Jacobitism, 1689-1759, ed. Eveline Cruickshanks, 111-137. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1982.

Burrows, Simon. "Despotism Without Bounds: The French Secret Police and the Silencing of Dissent in London, 1760-1790." History 89, no. 296 (2004): 525-548.

Chapman, Guy. The Dreyfus Case. New York: Reynal, 1955.

Duffy, Michael. "British Intelligence and the Breakout of the French Atlantic Fleet from Brest in 1799." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 5 (Oct. 2007): 601-618.

"The French had masked their intentions with some skill and the British agents had never been able to penetrate the secret. On the contrary British ministers had been led away on the false trail that the French had laid before them."

Duffy, Michael. "British Naval Intelligence and Bonaparte's Egyptian Expedition of 1798." Mariner's Mirror 84 (1998): 278-290.

Ehrman, John. "The Dreyfus Affair: Enduring CI Lessons." Studies in Intelligence 55, no. 1 (Mar. 2011): 21-30.

Ostensibly a review of three books on the Dreyfus affair [Louis Begley, Why the Dreyfus Affair Matters (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009); Frederick Brown, For the Soul of France: Culture Wars in the Age of Dreyfus (New York: Knopf, 2010); and Ruth Harris, Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century (New York: Holt, 2010)], pages 21-26 provides a clear overview of the whole affair. The author suggests that "Dreyfus is the starting point for modern CI history and ... is a model for approaching the study of CI and espionage." Ehrman's review of the literature ("For Further Reading") goes beyond just being useful.

Grendel, Frédéric. Beaumarchais: The Man Who Was Figaro. New York: Crowell, 1977.

Harris, John Raymond. Industrial Espionage and Technology Transfer: Britain and France in the Eighteenth Century. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1998.

Hoffman, Robert L. More than a Trial: The Struggle over Captain Dreyfus. New York: Free Press, 1980.

Hugon, Alain. Au Service du roi catholique: "Honorables ambassadeurs" et "Divins espions": Représentation diplomatique et service secret dans les relations hispano-françaises de 1598 a 1635. [In the Service of the Catholic King: "Honorable Ambassadors" and "Divine Spies": Diplomatic Representation and Secret Service in Hispano-French Relations from 1598 to 1635] Madrid: Casa de Velazquez, 2004.

According to Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), "[a]mong the many excellencies of this work are its data base of information about 240 spies and informers, with summaries of what is known about their persons and work."

Kates, Gary. Monsieur d'Eon Is a Woman: A Tale of Political Intrigue and Sexual Masquerade. New York: Basic Books, 1995. 1996. [pb]

Laurent, Sébastien.

1. "La naissance du renseignement étatique en France au XIXe siècle, entre bureaucratie et politique." [The Birth of State Intelligence in France in the 19th Century, between Bureaucracy and Politics] Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle (2007): 107-122.

Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), finds this to be "a wide-ranging, rich, and penetrating study."

2. Politiques de l'ombre: État, enseignement et surveillance en France. Paris: Fayard, 2009.

Price, I&NS 26.6 (Dec. 2011), calls this "a major contribution to our understanding of the evolution of governmental institutions in the nineteenth century."

Lewis, David. Prisoners of Honor: The Dreyfus Affair. New York: Morrow, 1973.

Luvaas, Jay. "Napoleon's Use of Intelligence: The Jena Campaign of 1805." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 3 (Jul. 1998): 40-54.

Marquis, Hugues. "L'espionnage britannique et la fin de l'Ancien Régime" [British espionage and the end of the Ancien Régime]. Histoire, économie et société 17 (1998): 261-276.

Mitchell, Allan. "The Xenophobic Style: French Counterespionage and the Emergence of the Dreyfus Affair." Journal of Modern History 52, no. 3 (Sep. 1980): 414-425. [Ehrman]

Ollier, Alexandre. La Cryptographie militaire: avant la guerre de 1914. [Military Cryptography: Before the 1914 War] Panazol: LaVauzelle, 2002.

Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), notes that this work "describes the post-1871 evolution in which France became the greatest cryptologic power in the world."

Potts, James M. French Covert Action in the American Revolution. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2005. (Digital edition available)

Peake, Studies 50.4 (2006) and Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007), finds that the author has answered questions about how the French clandestine support to the United States during the Revolutionary War "was initiated, when it began, the types of materials involved, and the impact it had on the war effort.... Potts shows that without this help Washington could not have sustained his army in the field until the critical battle of Saratoga, a battle won with materials supplied by France." This is a "very well documented and well-told treatment of the first covert action involving the United States."

Sanders, Charles W., Jr. "The Avenger Ignored." Military History, Feb. 1989, 12, 14, 16, 55-57.

Schulmeister, Charles. L'Espionnage militaire sous Napoleon Ier. Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1896.

Sheffy, Yigal. "Une convergence d'intérêts collaboration entre les services secrets français et britanniques au Levant pendant la Première Guerre mondiale." In De Bonaparte à Balfour: La France, L'Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917, eds. Dominique Trimbur and Ran Aaronson, 89-107. Paris: CNRS Editions, 2001.

Sheldon-Duplaix, Charles. "French Naval Intelligence during the Second Empire: Charles Pigeard's Reporting on British and American Shipbuilding (1856-1869)." Mariner's Mirror 94, no. 4 (2008): 406-419.

Soll, Jacob. The Information Master: Jean-Baptiste Colbert's Secret State Intelligence System. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2009.

"Colbert was Louis XIV's Controller-General of Finances from 1665 to 1683 [Soll, Information Master]." Cited in Stéphane Lefebvre, "A Brief Genealogy of State Secrecy," Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 31, no 1 (2013): 103/fn.5.

Walton, Charles. Policing Public Opinion in the French Revolution: The Culture of Calumny and the Problem of Free Speech. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Price, I&NS 26.6 (Dec. 2011), finds that the author's "central concern, pursued with considerable effectiveness, is why the men who proclaimed freedom of speech in 1789 so rapidly turned to prosecuting people for expressing their political views."

Watson, Vera. "Spy in the Committee of Public Safety." History Today 9 (Oct. 1959): 672-680.

Calder: "Discusses the British penetration of the French Committee of Public Safety.... Executions were held to clean out the spies, but the espionage continued."

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