FRANCE

World War I

Included here:

1. General

2. Mata Hari

1. General

Aan de Wiel, Jérôme. "French Military Intelligence and Ireland, 1900–1923." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 1 (Feb. 2011): 46-71.

The author "suggests that the Deuxième Bureau's interest in Ireland was not continuous but essentially shaped by the evolving relations between France and Britain. Simply put, it was of an opportunistic nature."

Boucard, Robert. Tr., R. Somerset. Revelations from the Secret Service: The Spy on Two Fronts. London: Hutchinson, 1930.

Constantinides says "this story of a successful French double agent who penetrated the circle of an unnamed German prince has no authoritative corroboration."

Coulson, Thomas. Queen of Spies, Louise de Bettignies. London: Constable, 1935. [Chambers]

de Lastours, Sophie. La France gagne la guerre des codes secrets 1914-1918. [France Wins the War of Secret Codes 1914-1918] Paris: Tallandier, 1998.

According to Brückner, JIH 2.2, "[t]he author describes the achievements of the most important French cryptographers during the First World War." This is "fascinating reading."

Gylden, Yves. The Contributions of the Cryptographic Bureaus in the World War. Washington. DC: GPO, 1935. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, n.d.

Constantinides: "Strictly speaking, Gylden has recounted the history of military cryptology, not the broader field the title implies. Much of what he writes is from the French, Austrian, and German experiences.... There is nothing on British accomplishments in military cryptology." Nevertheless, experts in the field give the book high marks.

Keene, Jennifer D. "Uneasy Alliances: French Military Intelligence and the American Army during the First World War." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 18-36.

From abstract: "During the First World War, French liaison officers ... provided valuable intelligence about the American army to French military authorities.... Non-adversarial spying on the Americans improved the French military's ability to understand and work with their ally."

Lasswell, Harold D. Propaganda Technique in the World War. New York: Knopf, 1927. London: Kegan Paul, 1938. New York: Peter Smith, 1938. [pb] Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1971. [pb]

Lerner at MIT Press: "This classic book on propaganda technique focuses on American, British, French, and German experience in World War I. The book sets forth a simple classification of various psychological materials used to produce certain specific results and proposes a general theory of strategy and tactics for the manipulation of these materials."

Parry, D.L.L. "Clemenceau, Caillaux and the Political Use of Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 3 (Jul. 1994): 472-494.

"The argument of this article is that the rise to power of Georges Clemenceau resulted from a manipulation of the discontent of 1917 which cast Joseph Caillaux as villain and Clemenceau as hero; some of the manipulators were well-known journalists and politicians, but behind them, supplying them with information for political ends, were members of the military and civilian intelligence services."

Thomson, Basil. The Allied Secret Service in Greece. London Hutchinson, 1931.

Constantinides notes that the "Allied Secret Service" in this case is the French, which Thomson portrays taking the lead in intelligence activities in Greece during World War I. "It is a passionate, strongly biased work on the direction political and diplomatic events took" because of the activities of the French naval attaché, Commander deRoquefeuil. Other than his claim to have seen a summary of the unpublished 1919 report of the French Chamber of Deputies' Naval Commission, "he does not say ... what the sources were for much of his material."

2. Mata Hari

Coulson, Thomas. Mata Hari: Courtesan and Spy. London: Hutchinson, 1930. New York: Harper, 1930. [Chambers]

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Myth Dispelled." Mar. 1999. [http://www.nacic.gov]

"British intelligence officials reported on January 26 [1999] that they could find no evidence to prove that Mata Hari ... worked as a secret agent. The 84-year-old files released by MI5 ... outline its investigation of Mata Hari, the stage name of Dutch woman Marguerite Zelle. Despite exhaustive accounts of her movements, contacts, and belongings, there was not enough evidence that could be considered as proof of 'espionage activities,' the Public Record's officials said." See also, Michael Evans, "MI5 Papers: Mata Hari 'Was Just A Fantasist,'" Times (London), 27 Jan. 1999.

Howe, Russell Warren. Mata Hari: The True Story. New York: Dodd & Mead, 1986.

Wheeler, IJI&C 1.3, calls this a "disappointing book.... What is new is the elaborate detail Howe has provided showing how French Intelligence victimized Mata Hari by creating a patently phoney case against her." The author provides a "detailed but plodding analysis" and his "grasp of the details and trends of World War I history is at times both uncertain and dubious.... [H]is picture of the secret war of codes and ciphers in World War I is full of gross generalizations, weak interpretations, and errors of fact." Howe's analysis of Mata Hari's character and attitudes "lacks verisimilitude and objectivity."

The author of what is generally regarded as the most accurate work on Mata Hari, Waagenaar, I&NS 2.4, basically destroys Howe's work in a detailed, almost point-by-point review. He finds Howe's research "unreliable," and his thesis that Mata Hari was framed by the French "erroneous." In addition, Howe made "a total hodge-podge of the details of Mata Hari's espionage efforts."

Leeman, Sue. "British Intelligence Was Never Able to Uncover Mata Hari's Secrets." Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 1-7 Feb. 1999, 18.

Formerly classified British documents show that the British intelligence interrogated Mata Hari twice (once in December 1915 and again in November 1916), but were unable to get her to admit to spying for the Germans.

Ostrovsky, Erika. Eye of Dawn: The Rise and Fall of Mata Hari. New York: Macmillan, 1978.

Wheeler, IJI&C 1.3, characterizes Eye of Dawn as a "portrait of the courtesan-dancer-reluctant spy by an empathetic writer of talent."

Schirmann, Léon. Mata-Hari. Autopsie D'Une Machination. Paris: Éditions italiques, 2001.

Brückner, JIH 4.1, notes that this book is being "presented ... as the companion volume to the file of the Military Court" [see Turbergue, ed., Mata-Hari (2001)]. The author claims that Mata Hari's death sentence resulted from "the combined machinations of three men": French counterintelligence officer Captain Ladoux, German military attaché in Madrid Major Kalle, and examining magistrate of the Military Court Major Bouchardon. "However, a closer look at the documents and at the facts of the case shows that the author would be well advised to reconsider his position."

Turbergue, Jean-Pierre, ed. Mata-Hari. Le Dossier Secret Du Conseil de Guerre. [Mata Hari: The Secret Dossier of the Council of War] Intro., Patrick Pesnot; epilogue, Gen. (CR) André Bach. Paris: Éditions italiques, 2001.

For Brückner, JIH 4.1, the opening of the dossier of the military court that tried Mata Hari and condemned her to death in 1917 demonstrates "that, contrary to established opinion, the 3rd Military Court gave Margaretha Geertruida Zelle MacLeod alias Mata-Hari a fair trial, and that she nearly got away." In the end, it was her confession that did her in, not the French justice system.

Waagenaar, Sam. The Murder of Mata Hari. London: Arthur Barker, 1964.

Wheeler, IJI&C 1.3, says this is the "only reasonable study" of Mata Hari. Its author is "an amateur historian."

Wheelwright, Julie. The Fatal Lover: Mata Hari and the Myth of Women in Espionage. West Sussex, UK: Juliet Gardner Books, 1992. [pb] West Sussex, UK: Collins & Brown, 1993.

Despite the specific mention of Mata Hari in the title, this book ranges broadly around the world in its survey of the ways (most unjustified, according to the author) the idea of the seductive and dangerous temptress has been promoted.

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