Materials arranged chronologically.

Telegraph (London). "Nicolas Sarkozy to Create School for Spies." 11 Jan. 2010. []

French President Nicolas Sarkozy "is determined to create a single French 'intelligence community', based on the US model. His plan for a French equivalent of the US National Security Council -- the Conseil de défense et de sécurité nationale (CDSN) -- took shape by official decree on [24 December 2009]. The CDSN will have an intelligence arm, uniting the chiefs of the six French spying and security agencies, the Conseil National du Renseignement or CNR. The chairman of both bodies will be President Sarkozy. There will also be, for the first time, a 'national intelligence coordinator', Bernard Bajolet, 60, whose task will be to ensure that the half-dozen different intelligence and security agencies cooperate with one another."

Hayez, Philippe. "'Renseignement': The New French Intelligence Policy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 3 (Fall 2010): 474-486.

"[T]he announcements made in June 2008 by President Sarkozy when presenting the new 'White Paper on Defense and National Security'" represent "the first global reform of France's intelligence structure since World War II.... If unavowed and rather weak in its human dimension, the French Intelligence Community has now been clearly defined and includes the naitron's policymakers.... [France] now owns almost all the structures needed for a legitimate and efficient intelligence apparatus."

Keaten, Jamey. "France's Spy Service Bulks up amid Terror Threats." Associated Press, 28 Dec. 2010. []

France's Direction Generale de Securite Exterieure (DGSE) "is recruiting hundreds of people and getting a budget boost, despite frugal times, to better fend off threats like terrorism and nuclear proliferation." The agency "is buffing its image as well, with its first-ever spokesman and a new website."

Denécé, Eric, and Gérald Arboit. "Intelligence Studies in France." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 4 (Winter 2010-2011): 725-747.

"In less than two decades, French Intelligence Studies has undergone a major transformation.... [D]espite the traditional lack of interest of political leaders in the subject, Intelligence has achieved a level of recognition that it hitherto lacked.... But talk of the emergence of a 'French School' of Intelligence ... is premature. The renewed interest in Intelligence as a subject of research may yet be only a passing fad."

Witte, Griff, and Anthony Faiola. "Charlie Hebdo Suspect Said to Surrender; Two Others at Large after Paris Terror Attack." Washington Post, 7 Jan. 2015. []

On 7 January 2015, gunmen opened fire in Paris on the weekly staff meeting of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo. Shouting "Allahu Akbar," they killed 12 and wounded 11 others. Police named brothers Said and Cherif Kouachi and 18-year-old Hamyd Mourad as suspects. Mourad turned himself in at a police station north of Paris.

Bilefsky, Dan, and Maia de la Baume. "French Police Storm Hostage Sites, Killing Gunmen," New York Times, 9 Jan. 2015. []

On 9 January 2015 the French police "killed the two brothers suspected of massacring 12 people at a Paris newspaper on [7 January 2015] and freed a hostage they had been holding unharmed.... The police also killed another hostage-taker," Amedy Coulibaly, "an associate of the brothers, in a separate assault on a kosher supermarket in Paris." According to a senior police official, "[t]hree hostages were killed and five injured at the market, although it was not immediately clear how many of those may have been shot in the final assault. Five hostages were reported to have been freed unharmed."

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