See the "WWII/Pearl Harbor/Tricycle" file for materials relating to Dusko Popov.
Additional materials concerning German intelligence and sabotage operations against the United States and Great Britain are available at World War II/Europe/Germany/Operations: A-F and G-Z.
Breuer, William B. Hitler's Underground War: The Nazi Espionage Invasion of the U.S. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. Nazi Spies in America: Hitler's Undercover War. New York: St. Martin's, 1990. [pb]
Surveillant 1.2 notes that Breuer tells the "story of how the FBI, working with Army and Navy Intelligence, took on [a] massive Nazi spy apparatus." Kross, IJI&C 5.1, adds that the "covert German penetration of the United States is splendidly detailed."
Farago, Ladislas. The Game of the Foxes: The Untold Story of German Espionage in the United States and Great Britain During World War II. New York: David McKay, 1971. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1972.
For Constantinides, this is a book of "uneven quality, controversial claims, and questionable conclusions.... The author had a penchant for the dramatic and for exaggeration.... The book's principal fault is that it distorts the reality of German intelligence's effectiveness ... and gets some of the details wrong as well." Sexton refers to The Game of the Foxes as a "misleading but popular account of German espionage and double agency in the United States and Great Britain."
Hart, Scott. Washington at War, 1941-45. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
Wilcox: "Account of FBI activities during World War II."
Lawless, Jill. "WWII British Spies Frustrated by FBI." Associated Press, 4 Sep. 2007. [http://www.ap.com]
Newly declassified files released on 4 September 2007 by the British National Archives "chart the rocky early years of the relationship" between the FBI and the British Security Service (MI5) "and show how cooperation improved over the course of the war."
MacDonnell, Francis. Insidious Foes: The Axis Fifth Column and the American Home Front. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Hansen, History 26.1, calls Insidious Foes "the first comprehensive treatment" of the Fifth Column scare in the United States between 1938 and 1942. MacDonnell's work "is notable for its judicious argument, cohesive organization, and enlarged perspective."
Rachlis, Eugene. They Came to Kill: The Story of Eight Nazi Saboteurs in America. New York: Random House, 1961.
Wilcox: "How they were caught, what happened to them."
Ramsey, R.W.R. "German Espionage in South America, 1939-45." Army Quarterly 118 (Jan. 1988): 55-59. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/ww2/genmisc.htm]
Ronnie, Art. Counterfeit Hero: Fritz Duquesne, Adventurer and Spy. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
Clark comment: Duquesne is best known from the classic 1945 movie "The House on 92nd Street," as the central figure in a ring of 33 Nazi spies arrested in New York in 1941.
Cutler, Proceedings 121.11 (Nov. 1995), notes that "Ronnie delved deep into prison records, government documents, and personal letters to create this unusual biography of a man who was eventually arrested in what J. Edgar Hoover described as 'the greatest spy roundup in U.S. history.'" To Chambers, Counterfeit Hero is a "carefully researched and highly readable demythologizing of Fritz Duquesne." Click for Chambers' full review. Bates, NIPQ 14.3, finds that Ronnie "has done a fine job of writing" a story "befogged with Fritz's fabrications." The author "will tell of an episode according to Fritz, then put in a documented fact which makes Fritz's story impossible."
Rout, Leslie B., Jr., and John F. Bratzel. Shadow War: German Espionage and United States Counterespionage in Latin America during World War II. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1986.
Haglund, I&NS 4.3, finds that the authors have provided excessive detail ("almost numbing") in this "definitive study" of the "wartime German-American undercover rivalry" in Mexico, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. The work "could use a bit more analysis and synthesis."
Turrou, Leon G., as told to David G. Wittels. Espionage for the Führer: Undercover in America. [UK]: Allborough Publishing, 1992. Vol. 2 in the Allborough Espionage Series.
Surveillant 2.5: "A new edition of Nazi Spy Conspiracy in America. In the U.S. this was first published in 1938 by Random House under the title Nazi Spies in America."
Washburn, Patrick S. "J. Edgar Hoover and the Black Press in World War II." Journalism History 13, no. 1 (1986): 26-33.
Calder says this article discusses "the FBI's activities concerning the Black press and suspected illegal activities and alleged ties with the American Communist Party."
Webb, G. Gregg. "Effective Interagency Collaboration: Intelligence Liaison between the FBI and State, 1940-44." Studies in Intelligence 49, no. 3 (2005). [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol49no3/html_files/FBI_State_3.htm]
"In a community famous for its deep fissures and debilitating rivalries, the working relationship forged between the Department of State and the Special Intelligence Service of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Latin America during World War II is both unique and instructive."
Webb, G. Gregg. "New Insights into J. Edgar Hoover's Role: The FBI and Foreign Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 48, no. 1 (2004): 45-58.
Established in 1940, the FBI's Special Intelligence Service (SIS) collected "political, economic, financial, and industrial intelligence throughout Central and South America" during World War II. The author argues that historians have attributed to Hoover "a more aggressive interest in expanding his purview overseas than the record supports."
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