Materials arranged chronologically.

Welsh, William. "Tomarchio Named DHS Deputy Director of Intelligence." Government Computer News, 4 Jan. 2006. []

"President Bush has appointed Jack Thomas Tomarchio, a former Army prosecutor and colonel in the Army reserve, as principal deputy assistant secretary of Homeland Security for information analysis."

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Management Directive System. "Intelligence Integration and Management." DHS Management Directive 8110. 30 Jan. 2006. [Available at:]

This document "establishes the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis as the Chief Intelligence Officer (CINT)" for DHS, "and establishes the authorities" of the CINT "to effectively integrate and manage the Department's Intelligence programs."

Aftergood, Steven. "Homeland Security Intelligence Strategic Plan." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 17 Feb. 2006. []

"Efforts by the Department of Homeland Security to assert itself as a viable member of the U.S. intelligence community have yielded a new strategic plan for homeland security intelligence and a management directive organizing the Department's intelligence activity. The new strategic plan is a handsome document, but largely devoid of significant content." The "DHS Intelligence Enterprise Strategic Plan," Jan. 2006, is available at:

Bliss, Jeff. "Allen Leaves CIA to Lead Homeland Security Intelligence Shakeup." Bloomberg News, 15 Mar. 2006. []

CIA veteran Charlie Allen is now in charge of organizing the DHS's intelligence service. He will need to "meld nine separate intelligence operations into one cohesive unit.... Allen heads an operation that includes Coast Guard officers feeding information on waterborne threats, federal air marshals keeping suspicious plane passengers under surveillance, Customs and Border Patrol workers scanning overseas letters and Secret Service agents tracking down threats to the president and foreign dignitaries."

Lipton, Eric. "Report Sees Confusion Likely in a Sea Attack by Terrorists." New York Times, 4 Apr. 2006. []

A report released on 3 April 2006 by the Department of Justice inspector general warned that "[p]otentially disastrous confusion could arise during a terrorist attack on a cruise ship or ferry because of a power struggle" between the FBI and the Coast Guard "over who would be in charge." After 2001, the Coast Guard, a part of DHS, "created 13 specialized teams based at major ports around the nation ... [and] trained to respond to a hostage situation or other maritime terrorism.... The F.B.I., a division of the Justice Department, has 14 of what it calls enhanced maritime SWAT teams and a separate hostage rescue team trained to respond to maritime terrorism....

"The government tried to clarify the roles through an October 2005 document called the Maritime Operational Threat Response." It says the DHS and its agencies, including the Coast Guard, "take the lead 'for the interdiction of maritime threats in waters where D.H.S. normally operates,' American ports and coastal waters. The document says the role of the Justice Department and the F.B.I. is to search for clues to prevent maritime terrorism and, if there is an attack, to investigate and prosecute. But the new report says the 2005 document has 'not eliminated the potential for conflict and confusion in the event of a terrorist incident at a seaport.'"

Raffel, Robert R. "Intelligence and Airport Security." Studies in Intelligence 50, no. 3 (Sep. 2006).

"Much information is available through open sources, but challenges involve prioritization and analytical capability. Local intelligence, given the relative ease of collection and immediate applicability to the individual airport, has value to the airport security manager.... [M]ore work needs to be done in the area of trend analysis."

Losey, Stephen. "Charles Allen's Homeland Security Department." Periscope (Summer 2006): 33-34. [Reprinted from Fedeal Times, 4 Sep. 2006]

Interview with head of DHS's intelligence office.

Bowman, Steve, and James Crowhurst. Homeland Security: Evolving Roles and Missions for United States Northern Command. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Nov. 2006. Available at:

Among the issues raised: "As mobilizations continue and homeland security missions increase, more reserve component forces are serving in full time status. This creates near- and long-term resource issues as Congress considers future defense appropriations. Additionally, the heritage of 'citizensoldiers' could be lost as reserve components are used more as an operational reserve."

Lumpkin, Beverley. "Homeland Intelligence Chief Lists Risks." Associated Press, 30 Dec. 2006. []

"After 47 years spent gathering and analyzing foreign intelligence at the CIA, Charles Allen is facing perhaps his biggest career challenge in developing a homeland intelligence capability. He now must gain the respect of the U.S. intelligence community for the Homeland Security Department, where he has spent just over a year as chief intelligence officer."

Sheridan, Mary Beth, and Spencer S. Hsu. "Localities Operate Intelligence Centers to Pool Terror Data: 'Fusion' Facilities Raise Privacy Worries as Wide Range of Information Is Collected." Washington Post, 31 Dec. 2006, A3. []

"Frustrated by poor federal cooperation, U.S. states and cities are building their own network of intelligence centers led by police to help detect and disrupt terrorist plots. The new 'fusion centers' are now operating in 37 states ... and another covers the Washington area, according to the Department of Homeland Security. The centers ... pool and analyze information from local, state and federal law enforcement officials."

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