2003 - 2004

Materials arranged chronologically.

Risen, James. "A Top Intelligence Post Goes to C.I.A. Officer in Spy Case." New York Times, 14 Mar. 2003. []

The White House announced on 13 March 2003 that Paul Redmond, former CIA counterintelligence chief, has been named DHS assistant secretary for information analysis. His unit will process and analyze intelligence provided by the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) and other agencies and will process intelligence collected by agencies within DHS, like the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, and Immigration and Naturalization Service. John Brennan, newly named chief of TTIC, which begins operations on 1 May 2003, "told reporters that he believed his center would be a hub in the government's efforts to integrate terrorist-related information" gathered by the FBI, CIA, DHS, and other agencies.

Erckenbrack, Adrian A., and Aaron Scholer. "The DOD Role in Homeland Security." Joint Forces Quarterly 35 (Summer 2003): 34-41.

Mintz, John. "Top Homeland Security Official Resigns Position." Washington Post, 1 Jul. 2003, A6. []

DHS Assistant Secretary Paul Redmond resigned on 30 June 2003, "citing health reasons." On 5 June 2003, Redmond "angered many House members at a hearing [before the House Select Committee on Homeland Security] when he testified that his newly established office has not hired enough analysts or set up enough secure communications lines to receive classified FBI and CIA data for analysis purposes. A department spokesman said Redmond's resignation was 'totally unrelated' to his ... testimony."

Mintz, John. "At Homeland Security, Doubts Arise Over Intelligence." Washington Post, 21 Jul. 2003, A12. []

According to some members of Congress and independent national security experts, DHS's intelligence unit "is understaffed, unorganized and weak-willed in bureaucratic struggles with other government agencies,... In passing the law establishing the department..., Congress intended Homeland Security to be the focal point for handling intelligence to protect America from terrorists." However, the Bush administration decided "that the agency should not have the standing of the CIA or FBI in analyzing intelligence about terror threats. [DHS] officials acknowledged growing pains in their intelligence wing.... They also point out that the head of their intelligence section, retired Marine Lt. Gen. Frank Libutti, was sworn in only on June 26[, 2003]."

Best, Richard A., Jr. Homeland Security: Intelligence Support. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 23 Feb. 2004. Available at:

Legislation establishing theDHS "included provisions for an information analysis element within the new department. It did not transfer to DHS existing government intelligence and law enforcement agencies but envisioned an analytical office utilizing the products of other agencies -- both unevaluated information and finished reports -- to provide warning of terrorist attacks, assessments of vulnerability, and recommendations for remedial actions at federal, state, and local levels, and by the private sector. In January 2003, the Administration announced its intention to establish a new Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) to undertake many of the tasks envisioned for the DHS informational analysis element..., but some Members of Congress argue that TTIC cannot be a substitute for a DHS analytical effort. This report examines different approaches to improving the information analysis function and the sharing of information among federal agencies."

Janofsky, Michael. "Intelligence to Be Shared, Ridge Tells Governors." New York Times, 19 Aug. 2003. []

Speaking at a meeting of the National Governors Association on 18 August 2003, Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge told the governors that "his department was taking added steps to make sure they are given all necessary intelligence to respond quickly to a terrorist attack or the threat of one.... Ridge said that in addition to the governors, five senior officials in each state would be given top-secret security clearances to receive classified information, and when the color-coded terror alert changed, governors would get any information federal intelligence agencies have on specific targets."

Relyea, Harold C. "Organizing for Homeland Security." Presidential Studies Quarterly 33 (Sep. 2003): 602-624.

Marrin, Stephen. "Homeland Security Intelligence: Just the Beginning." Intelligencer14, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2004): 43-51. Journal of Homeland Security, Nov. 2003 (

"[D]omestic intelligence ... has historically had minimal institutionalization at the federal level." Nevertheless, given the events of 11 September 2001 and the new domestic intelligence programs proposed and implemented since then, "the study of foreign intelligence indicates that the roles and missions of domestic intelligence will likely increase.... The expanding roles and missions of domestic intelligence agencies will likely pose a threat to civil liberties. This threat can ... be countered through the incorporation of overlapping procedural guidelines and oversight mechanisms."

Berkowitz, Bruce D. "Intelligence for the Homeland." SAIS Review 24, no.1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 1-6.

Bodenheimer, David Z. "Technology for Border Protection: Homeland Security Funding and Priorities." Intelligencer 14, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2004): 83-90.

"For border security, technology is the future, and the future is now." The defining factors for the types of technologies most in demand for border security "include interoperability, off-the-shelf availability, adaptability, force-multiplier capability, and legislative requirements."

Ross, Robert G. [CAPT/USCG], and Peyton M. Coleman [CDR/USCG (Ret.)]. "The Way Forward: Education and Jointness in Homeland Security -- Learning from the Department of Defense." Intelligencer 14, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 77-81.

The authors call for creation of "a National Homeland Security University modeled after the Defense Department's National Defense University." [Italics in original]

Rubin, Claire. "Major Terrorist Events in the U.S. and Their Outcomes: Intitial Analysis and Observations." Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 1, no. 1 (2004). []

From abstract: "[T]his article provides an initial policy analysis of recent federal efforts to deal with terrorism. The author poses some new questions and suggests that a new paradigm exists for emergency management in the U.S. since Sept. 11, 2001."

Dycus, Stephen. "The Role of Military Intelligence in Homeland Security." Louisiana Law Review 64 (Summer 2004): 779-807.

Mintz, John. "Homeland Security Employs Imagination: Outsiders Help Devise Possible Terrorism Plots." Washington Post, 18 Jun. 2004, A27. []

The DHS, given the difficult task of trying to divine al Qaeda's future methods of attack on the United States, is seeking advice from some unexpected sources these days: futurists, philosophers, software programmers, a pop musician and a thriller writer. Picking the brains of people with offbeat specialties and life experiences is the latest tactic in the government's efforts to get inside the heads of worldwide terrorists. Homeland Security's Analytic Red Cell office employs a tactic that has been used for decades by U.S. intelligence agencies, the Pentagon and large corporations -- gathering together people from outside their insular bureaucracies to arrive at fresh insights."

Mintz, John. "DHS Blamed for Failure To Combine Watch Lists." Washington Post, 2 Oct. 2004, []

According to a report released on 1 October 2004 by DHS Inspector General Clark Kent Ervin, the "effort to consolidate federal agencies' 12 terrorist watch lists into one has all but failed, partly because the [DHS] has abandoned its responsibility to take the lead on the project."

Seper, Jerry, and Guy Taylor. "Poor Leadership at ICE Cited as Security Threat." Washington Times, 29 Nov. 2004. []

"U.S. Customs and Immigration Enforcement's ability to gather and share intelligence data, conduct the investigations needed to guard the nation's borders against terrorists and enforce immigration law is being challenged by a growing number of ICE supervisors and agents. Both supervisory and rank-and-file personnel ... said the Department of Homeland Security agency is overwhelmed by low morale, mismanagement and the lack of a clearly defined mission, and said the lack of effective leadership threatens its ability to defend the United States against a new terrorist attack.

"ICE was created March 1, 2003, with the merger of U.S. Customs, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Federal Protective Service. With a work force of nearly 15,000, it is one of the largest law-enforcement agencies in the federal government."

Allen, Mike, and John Mintz. "Ex-NYPD Official to Succeed Ridge: Nominee Was Commissioner on 9/11." Washington Post, 3 Dec. 2004, A1. []

Administration officials said on 2 December 2004 that President Bush has chosen Bernard B. Kerik, former New York police commissioner, to take over the DHS. See also, Richard W. Stevenson and Christopher Drew, "Bush Set to Name Ex-Chief of Police for Top Security Post," New York Times, 3 Dec. 2004.

Foley, Tom, and Newt Gingrich. "Protecting the Homeland." Washington Times, 8 Dec. 2004. []

The two former House speakers argue for establishing a permanent Committee on Homeland Security. Congress and the President created the DHS "to focus the government's counterterrorist efforts. Congress must now align itself with the new structure of the executive branch, or it will lose influence and DHS will lose focused congressional guidance at the most vulnerable early stages of its development."

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Eric Lipton. "Kerik's Position Was Untenable, Bush Aide Says." New York Times, 12 Dec. 2004. []

A White House official said on 11 December 2004 that President Bush "accepted Bernard B. Kerik's decision to withdraw his nomination as homeland security secretary after the White House concluded that it would be untenable for him to supervise the nation's immigration laws if he had had immigration problems in his own household."

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