DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

2001 - 2002

Materials arranged chronologically.

McCutcheon, Chuck. "Defining Homeland Security." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 29 Sep. 2001, 2252-2254.

Pianin, Eric. "Ridge Assumes Security Post Amid Potential for New Attacks." Washington Post, 9 Oct. 2001, A6. "'An Orchestra Leader, Not a Drill Sergeant': As Homeland Security Chief, Ridege Coordinates Law Enforcement, Intelligence and Defense." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 15-21 Oct. 2001, 30.

On 8 October 2001, former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was sworn in as "director of the Office of Homeland Security, with responsibility for coordinating a wide variety of federal, state and local security activities to combat terrorism, including the gathering and distribution of intelligence reports on terrorist threats, preparedness efforts to deal with potential attacks and actions to prevent such attacks."

Bettelheim, Adriel. "Does Ridge Have the Clout to Carry It Off?" Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 3 Nov. 2001, 2586-2590.

Cirincione, Joseph. "Defending America." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 3, no. 1 (2002): 127-153.

Brinkley, Joel, and Philip Shenon. "Ridge Meeting Opposition from Agencies." New York Times, 6 Feb. 2002, A16.

Rowny, Edward L. "Homeland Defense Needs a Real Commander." Wall Street Journal, 14 Feb. 2002, A20.

Weinberger, Sharon. "NORAD Proposed High-Altitude Airships for Homeland Defense." Aerospace Daily, 23 Apr. 2002, 1-3.

Champness, Michael. "The Role of the US Air Force in Fighting Terrorism at Home." Aerospace Power Journal 16 (Spring 2002): 101-105.

Poynor, D. Robert. "A Proposal for Homeland-Defense Organization." Aerospace Power Journal 16 (Spring 2002): 97-100.

Rinaldi, Steven M., Donald H. Leathem, and Timothy Kaufman. "Protecting the Homeland: Air Force Roles in Homeland Security." Aerospace Power Journal 16 (Spring 2002): 77-86.

Spracher, William C. "Homeland Security and Intelligence: Can Oil Mix with Water in an Open Society?" Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 11 (Spring 2002): 29-54.

Eggen, Dan, and Dana Priest. "Intelligence Powers Set for New Agency: Department Would Shape Response to Threats." Washington Post, 8 Jun. 2002, A1. [http://www. washingtonpost.com]

According to administration officials on 7 June 2002, President Bush's proposed Department of Homeland Security "would take over significant duties in the war on terrorism.... Rather than operating a clearinghouse for intelligence information, officials of the proposed new Cabinet-level department would be responsible for making key decisions about how to respond. One division of the new department -- Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection -- would be responsible for analyzing nearly all the intelligence information on domestic threats compiled by the FBI, the CIA and other agencies, and would be charged with devising strategies to guard against specific threats as they develop, officials said."

VandeHei, Jim, and Dan Eggen. "Hill Eyes Shifting Parts of FBI, CIA: Homeland Security Department Would Get Own Operatives." Washington Post, 13 June. 2002, A1. [http://www. washingtonpost.com]

"Congressional leaders are strongly considering granting to a new Department of Homeland Security authority over parts of the CIA and the FBI, a complex and controversial restructuring of the nation's intelligence apparatus that President Bush opposes."

Fineman, Howard, and Tamara Lipper. "Bush's Homeland Shuffle." Newsweek, 17 Jun. 2002, 28-31.

Miller, Bill, and Mike Allen. "Homeland Security Dept. Could Receive Raw FBI, CIA Data; Bush Still Opposes Merging of FBI." Washington Post, 19 Jun. 2002, A8. [http://www. washingtonpost.com]

On 18 June 2002, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge delivered the draft of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to Congress, along with a message from President George W. Bush. The legislation would give the Department of Homeland Security "access to raw intelligence about domestic terror threats collected by the FBI, the CIA and other agencies.... White House officials said Bush remains determined not to merge the FBI into the new agency."

Pincus, Walter. "Congress to Postpone Revamping of FBI, CIA; Homeland Security Agency Becomes Legislative Focus." Washington Post, 2 Jul. 2002, A1. [http://www. washingtonpost.com]

"Congress will put off a reorganization of the FBI and CIA ... until it establishes a Department of Homeland Security, according to Bush administration and congressional sources.... The delay underscored the increasing awareness on Capitol Hill that reorganizing the CIA, FBI, National Security Agency and other intelligence bodies is an extraordinarily complex undertaking about which there is little agreement on what needs to be fixed or, indeed, whether any changes are even required."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Creating the Department of Homeland Security. Hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works. 107th Cong., 2d sess., 10 Jul. 2002. Washington, DC: GPO, 2002.

Channell, Ralph Norman [CAPT/USN (Ret.)]. "Intelligence and the Department of Homeland Security." Strategic Insights 1, no. 6 (Aug. 2002). [http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/aug02/homeland2.asp]

"How should this new department be organized to utilize existing intelligence assets and to generate new sources and types of intelligence? The U.S. military's recent experience, especially in organizing for joint warfare, might be a place to turn for some lessons."

Mintz, John, and Mike Allen. “House Passes Homeland Security Bill.” Washington Post, 14 Nov. 2002, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

The reorganization that will accompany the establishment of the new Department of Homeland Security will be "the largest in government since the creation of the Defense Department in 1947."

Dewar, Helen. “Senate Passes Homeland Security Bill.” Washington Post, 20 Nov. 2002, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 19 November 2002, "the Senate voted 90 to 9 to fold 170,000 employees from 22 agencies into a new department charged with the responsibility of shoring up the nation's defenses against terrorism."

Luikart, Kenneth A. [LTCOL/GAANG] "Transforming Homeland Security: Intelligence Indications and Warning." Strategic Insights 1, no. 10 (Dec. 2002). [http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/dec02/homeland.asp] Air & Space Power Journal 17, no. 2 (Summer 2003). [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil]

The problem of accurately predicting hostile actions against our nation."will plague the newly formed Department of Homeland Security." What is needed is to develop a new Indications & Warning (I&W) "analytical cell that supports the president and the [DHS] with all-source intelligence analysis."

Eggen, Dan, and John Mintz. “Homeland Security Won’t Have Diet of Raw Intelligence.” Washington Post, 6 Dec. 2002, A43. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

“With the FBI and CIA insisting on strict limits on the information they must share with the new Homeland Security Department, the Bush administration has begun to craft rules for the handling of intelligence in the hope of heading off conflict among the agencies responsible for protecting the United States from another terrorist attack. For now, the intelligence agencies have persuaded the White House that information provided to the Homeland Security Department should be in the form of summary reports. Those summaries generally will not include raw intelligence or details on where or how the information was gathered, in order to protect sources and methods.”

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