CRYPTOGRAPHY

William F. Friedman

According to David Kahn, The Codebreakers (1996), p. 21, "Friedman was (and is) the world's greatest cryptologist." See "William W. Friedman: Principal Cryptologist" at the Huachuca History Program under "Masters of the Intelligence Art": http://huachuca-www.army.mil/History/html/SiteMap.html.

Included here:

1. Materials on Friedman

2. Friedman's Writings

1. Materials on Friedman

Chiles, James R. "Breaking Codes Was This Couple's Lifetime Career." Smithsonian Magazine 18, no. 3 (Jun. 1987): 128-144.

This article supplies a brief outline of the codebreaking careers of William and Elizabeth Friedman.

Clark, Ronald W. The Man Who Broke Purple: The Life of Colonel William F. Friedman, Who Deciphered the Japanese Code in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1977.

Hatch David A. "From the Archives: Friedman Takes the Stand." Cryptologia 32, no. 2 (Apr. 2008): 180-183.

Abstract: "William F. Friedman's first public appearance as a cryptologist was short, with the start of testimony at a trial of wartime German and Indian conspirators. The article quotes the short testimony verbatim and provides some commentary on it."

Kosakowski, Leonard S. [Maj.] "Colonel Friedman: The Man Who Broke Purple." Military Review 73 (Apr. 1993): 74-77.

Kruh, Louis. "Memories of Friedman." Cryptologia 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1980): 23-26

MacKinnon, Colin. "William Friedman's Bletchley Park Diary: A New Source for the History of Anglo-American Intelligence Cooperation." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 4 (Dec. 2005): 654-669.

In late April 1943, Friedman, Col. Alfred McCormack, and Lt. Col. Telford Taylor traveled to Great Britain to meet with British cryptologists. His diary of that visit, which lasted until 12 May 1943, "is a meticulous account of his activities during the mission." It was in the same period that the 1943 Travis-Strong Agreement was negotiated. and it appears the U.S. delegation was part of that process. See also, Erskine, "William Friedman's Bletchley Park Diary: A Different View," I&NS 22.3 (Jun. 2007): 367-379.

Oakley, Howard T. "The Riverbank Publications on Cryptology." Cryptologia 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1978): 324-330.

Sheldon, Rose Mary. The Friedman Collection: An Analytical Guide. At: http://marshallfoundation.org/library/documents/FreidmanCollectionGuide.pdf.

Published on the George C. Marshall Foundation's Website, Dr. Sheldon details the materials held in the William F. Friedman Collection at the Foundation.

U.S. National Security Agency. Center for Cryptologic History. The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and Elizebeth Friedman. Ft. George Gordon Meade, MD: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1992.

Included here are Friedman's "Six Lectures on Cryptography." Kruh, Cryptologia 29.3 (Jul. 2005), calls this "an exceptional book."

2. Friedman's Writings

Friedman, William F. Advanced Military Cryptography. Rev. ed. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1976.

Friedman, William F. "A Brief History of the Signal Intelligence Service." Cryptologia 15 (Jul. 1991): 263-272.

Friedman, William F. Cryptography and Cryptanalysis Articles. 2 vols. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1976.

Friedman, William F. "Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer." Signal Corps Bulletin, Jul.-Sep. 1937, 41-53; Oct.-Dec. 1937, 54-74. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/crypto. htm]

Friedman, William F. Elementary Military Cryptography. Rev. ed. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1976.

Friedman, William F. Elements of Cryptanalysis. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1976.

Friedman, William F. History of the Use of Codes. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1977. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/crypto.htm]

Friedman, William F. The Index of Coincidence and Its Applications in Cryptography. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1986.

Kahn, The Codebreakers (Rev. ed. New York: Scribner, 1996), p. 376, calls this work, originally published in 1922 as Riverbank Publication No. 22 , "the most important single publication in cryptography."

Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis. U.S. War Department, Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 4 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1939-1943. [Petersen]

Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis, Part III: Simpler Varieties of Aperiodic Substitution Systems. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1992. [Surveillant 3.2/3]

Friedman, William F. Military Cryptanalysis, Part IV: Transposition and Fractionating Systems. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1992. [Surveillant 3.2/3]

Friedman, William F. The Riverbank Publications. 3 vols. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1979.

Friedman, William F. Solving German Codes in World War I. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1977. [Chambers]

Friedman, William F. "Use of Codes and Ciphers in the World War and Lessons to be Learned Therefrom." Signal Corps Bulletin, Jul.-Sep. 1938, 35-48. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/ usamhi/RefBibs/intell/crypto.htm]

Friedman, William F., and Charles J. Mendelsohn. The Zimmermann Telegram of January 16, 1917 and Its Cryptographic Background. Washington, DC: War Department, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, GPO, 1938. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1976 and 1994.

Chambers comments that this was the "first US account of the affair"; it is a "little wordy, but very good." According to Constantinides, Barbara Tuchman was unable to gain access to this study for the first edition of her book, and amended her account in a later edition after the 1965 declassification of Friedman and Mendelsohn's work.

 

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