COVERT ACTION

Radio Broadcasting Operations

Cummings, Richard H. Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe, 1950-1989. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.

Table of Contents

Abbreviations and Acronyms ix

Preface 1

1. Intelligence Underpinnings of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty 5

2. The 1950s: When the Cold War Was Hot 34

3. Piccadilly versus the Tramp: The Murder of Georgi Markov 58

4. Carlos the Jackal and the Bombing of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty 92

5. Revenge of the Chief Architect: Ceausescu's War Against Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty 122

6. Code Name Iago: The Murder Attempts on Emil Georgeseu 146

7. Aggression in the Ether: Oleg Tumanov and Other KGB Agents 171

8. Alpha, Waves, and Hornets 198

Appendix A: East German Intelligence Report on Carlos 219

Appendix B: Action Plan in Noel Bernard's Case, Code Name the Jackal 229

Appendix C: Detailed Plan Used to Bomb RFE/RL 234

Appendix D: Letter from Carlos to Johannes Weinrich 237

Appendix E: Stasi Report on "Separat" 239

Appendix F: Letter from Johannes Weinrich to Carlos 243

Appendix G: West German Annual Report Excerpts 254

Appendix H: 1992 SRI Report to RFE/RL 256

Appendix I: 1985 Romanian Ether Report 259

Appendix J: 1976 Joint Action Plan Against RFE/RL 264

Appendix K: Selected Summary of Threats, Intimidations, Contacts, Intelligence Cases 269

Chapter Notes 287

Bibliography 297

Index 301

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