COVERT ACTION

Psychological and Propaganda Operations Generally

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Ellwood, David W.

1. "The Impact of the Marshall Plan on Italy, the Impact of Italy on the Marshall Plan." In Cultural Transmissions and Receptions: American Mass Culture in Europe, eds. R. Kroes, R.W. Rydell, and D.F.J. Boscher, 100-124. Amsterdam, Netherlands: VU UP, 1993.

2. "Italian Modernisation and the Propaganda of the Marshall Plan." In The Art of Persuasion: Political Communication in Italy from 1945 to the 1990s, eds. Luciano Cheles and Luciano Sponza. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2001.

3. "The 1948 Elections in Italy: A Cold War Propaganda Battle." Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 1 (1993).

4. "The Propaganda of the Marshall Plan in Italy in a Cold War Context." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 225-236.

"The Marshall Plan delivered the goods, and deployed an ever-wider range of communication methods to inform, educate, and convince its beneficiaries. The [Communist] Party failed to learn the importance of mass audio-visual media from its defeat in the 1948 elections, and had no useful response to the double onslaught of Hollywood and the USIS/ERP programme."

4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne). "Leaflets of the Persian Gulf War." Ft. Bragg, NC, 1991. [http://www.psywar.org/psywar/reproductions/LeafletsPersianGulfWar.pdf]

From the Commander, Col. Layton G. Dunbar, USA: "This book contains exemplars of leaflets designed, printed and disseminated in support of Coalition Forces during Operation DESERT STORM.... The psychological preparation of the battlefield began in earnest in December and radio, leaflet and loudspeaker operations continued non-stop throughout the air and ground phases of the conflict. The PSYOP radio network, 'Voice of the Gulf,' broadcast from 19 January until the end of the war.... More than 29 million leaflets (approximately 29 tons) were disseminated between 30 December 1990 and 28 February 1991. Sixty-six PSYOP loudspeaker teams provided tactical support for every major ground unit throughout the ground war."

Gerth, Jeff. "Military's Information War Is Vast and Often Secretive." New York Times, 11 Dec. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to "documents and interviews with contractors, government officials and military personnel," the U.S. government "has been conducting an information war that is extensive, costly and often hidden." The goal is "to counter anti-American sentiment in the Muslim world." The 1,200-strong Fourth Psychological Operations Group based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, "turns out what its officers call 'truthful messages' to support" the government's objectives.

Gienow-Hecht, Jessica C.E

1. "'How Good Are We?' Culture and the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 269-282.

"[H]igh culture provided the basis for Cold War propaganda as much as the Cold War manipulated representations of high culture.... [I]n the case of ... Europe, cultural relations and exchanges had been in place before, both on the level of high and popular culture. The Cold War ...triggered programmes to finance individual interactions that would otherwise not have been taking place. But it did not inspire new cultural affinities.... These had been in place before and they remained in place thereafter."

2. "Shame on US? Academics, US Cultural Transfer and the Cold War." Diplomatic History 24 (Summer 2000): 465-494.

3. Transmission Impossible: American Journalism as Cultural Diplomacy in Postwar Germany. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1999.

Fischer, I&NS 16.3, notes that the author's focus is on the German-language newspaper, Neue Zeitung, launched by the U.S. Office of Military Government in Germany in 1945. The initial period of editorial autonomy ended in September 1947, after which the paper "became an instrument in the simmering propaganda war with the Soviet Union."

Goldstein, Frank L., and Benjamin F. Findley, Jr., eds. Psychological Operations: Principles and Case Studies. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1996.

Gordon, J.S., ed. Psychological Operations: The Soviet Challenge. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987. [Wilcox]

Hixson, Walter L. Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture, and the Cold War, 1945-1961. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. London: Macmillan, 1997.

According to Caffrey, History 26.1, the author examines the "cultural infiltration" of the Soviet bloc through propaganda and cultural exchange programs. Hixson details the development of the Voice of America, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, and the instruments of cultural diplomacy. Rawnsley, I&NS 14.2, finds this to be "a fascinating and comprehensive study of early Cold War propaganda.... Hixson's research is impressive.... [He has] produced a book that is based more on primary sources than any other recent treatments of the same subject."

Jackall, Robert, ed. Propaganda. New York: New York University Press, 1995. London: Macmillan, 1995.

Koch, Andrew. "Briefing: Psychological Operations." Jane's Defence Weekly 36 (15 Aug. 2001): 22-26.

Koch, Andrew. "US Eyes Improved Psyops Delivery." Jane's Defence Weekly 42 (16 Feb. 2005): 11.

Among the improvements mentioned is the Psyops Global Reach program, which is designed to develop and field systems capable of sending radio and television signals deep into enemy territory.

Kracauer, Siegfried, and Paul Berkman. Satellite Mentality: Political Attitudes and Propaganda Susceptibilities of Non-Communists in Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovalia. New York: Praeger, 1956. [Cummings, Intelligencer 15.3 (Summer-Fall 2007), 47/fn.9)]

Lord, Carnes, and Frank Barnet, eds. Political Warfare and Psychological Operations: Rethinking the U.S. Approach. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1989.

From "Foreword": "This book, based on a symposium cosponsored by the National Defense University, the National Strategy Information Center, and the Georgetown University National Security Studies Program, considers what the United States can do to overcome traditional American aversion to political warfare and compete better in the political struggle that characterizes international relations today."

Lucas, Scott. "Campaigns of Truth: The Psychological Strategy Board and American Ideology, 1951-1953." Initernational History Review 18, no. 2 (1996): 253-394.

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