COVERT ACTION

Africa

Congo/Zaire

I - Z

Kalb, Madeleine G. The Congo Cables: The Cold War in Africa -- From Eisenhower to Kennedy. New York: Macmillan, 1982.

Whitaker, NYT, 27 Jun. 1982, says the author "tells the story well. Carefully placing the three-year struggle in the international context..., Mrs. Kalb both educates and stuns the reader with a flood of detail that is sometimes as dizzying as the Congo's complexities were to a series of Western diplomats."

Kelly, Sean. America's Tyrant: The CIA and Mobutu of Zaire: How the United States Put Mobutu in Power, Protected Him from His Enemies, Helped Him Become One of the Richest Men in the World, and Lived to Regret It. Washington, DC: American University Press, 1993.

From advertisement: Kelly was an "Associated Press correspondent in Namibia and a former Voice of America correspondent in Africa." Gerhart, FA 73.5 (Sep.-Oct. 1994), calls America's Tyrant a "lively book..., drawing on interview material and unpublished documents in the presidential libraries." But it does not contain much new material. "Mobuto ... remains shadowy as a personality."

Michaels, Jeffrey H. "Breaking the Rules: The CIA and Counterinsurgency in the Congo 1964-1965." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 130-159.

"[T]he CIA's effort to counter the 'Simba rebellion' in the Congo in 1964-1965 ... broke all the rules often discussed in relation to the role of intelligence in contemporary conflicts. Most notably, rather than the CIA being used to enable U.S. military forces to conduct counterinsurgency, the CIA was used to ensure that the U.S. military would not become involved."

Namikas, Lise. Battleground Africa: Cold War in the Congo, 1960-1965. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.

To van de Walle, FA 92.6 (Nov.-Dec. 2013), this is "a fine history of the Cold War politics of Congo during the early 1960s."

Odom, Thomas P. [MAJ/USA] Dragon Operations: Hostage Rescues in the Congo, 1964-1965. Leavenworth Papers No. 14. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Commend and General Staff College, 1988. [http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/download/csipubs/odomLP14.pdf]

Robarge, David. "CIA's Covert Operations in the Congo, 1960-1968: Insights from Newly Declassified Documents." Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 3 (Sep. 2014): 1-9.

The author calls FRUS, 1964-1968, XIIIX, Congo, 1960-1968 "a comprehensive set of primary sources about CIA activities in the Congo." Robarge provides an excellent, readable overview of CIA covert operations in 1960s Congo.

Schmidt, Elizabeth. Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Van de Walle, FA 93.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2014), says this work has "a particularly good chapter on the Congo crisis in the early 1960s).

Traugott, Mark. "The Economic Origins of the Kwilu Rebellion." Comparative Studies in Society and History 21, no. 3 (Jul. 1979): 459-479.

Villafana, Frank R. Cold War in the Congo: The Confrontation of Cuban Military Forces, 1960–1967. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 2009.

Wagoner, Fred E. [COL/USA (Ret.)] DRAGON ROUGE: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo. Washington, DC: National Defense University, Research Directorate, 1980. [http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA094969]

Weissman, Stephen R.

1. American Foreign Policy in the Congo 1960–1964. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974.

2. "CIA Covert Action in Zaire and Angola: Patterns and Consequences." Political Science Quarterly 94, no 2 (Summer 1979): 263- 286.

Lowenthal finds this article useful "for showing the wide range" that CIA covert actions can take. The author argues that the type of covert operations seen in Africa were pretty much the same as those being used elsewhere in the world.

3. "An Extraordinary Rendition." Intelligence and National Security 25, no 2 (Apr. 2010): 198-222.

The author argues that "the US Government shared direct responsibilty for Lumumba's murder along with the Congo and Belgium."

4. "What Really Happened in Congo: The CIA, the Murder of Lumumba, and the Rise of Mobutu." Foreign Affairs 93, no. 4 (Jul.-Aug. 2014): 14-24.

The author argues that "the CIA engaged in pervasive political meddling and paramilitary action between 1960 and 1968 to ensure that the country retained a pro-Western government and to help its pathetic military on the battlefield." His effort to tie CIA station chief Larry Devlin more directly to the murder of Patrice Lumumba is based on flimsy wording such as "Devlin may have..." and "if Washington had been..., it might well have...." Weissman's speculation on what Lumumba might have done seems empty.

See "Who Lost Congo? The Consequences of Covert Action," Foreign Affairs 94, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2015): 169-173, in which Herman J. Cohen, "From Colony to Chaos," 169-170; Charles G. Cogan, "In Defence of Devlin," 170-171; and Stephen R. Weissman, "Weissman Replies," 171-173, debate Weissman's article.

Welch, Claude E., Jr. "Ideological Foundations of Revolution in Kwilu." African Studies Review 18, no. 2 (Sep. 1975): 116-128.

Whitelaw, Kevin. "A Killing in Congo: Lumumba's Death No Longer Seems a CIA Plot." U.S. News & World Report, 24 Jul. 2000, 63.

Citing a new book by Ludo de Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba (2001), the article notes that "new evidence suggests that Belgium [not the CIA] ... was the mastermind" behind the killing of former Congo prime minister Patrice Lumumba in January 1961.

Wicker, Tom, John W. Finney, Max Frankel, and E.W. Kenworthy. "How CIA Put 'Instant Air Force' Into Congo." New York Times, 25 Apr 1966. [Michaels]

Yanez, Luisa. "History of Cuban Exile Pilots Who Served in the Congo in the Early 1960s Being Preserved." Miami Herald, 23 Nov. 2011. [http://www.miamiherald.com]

This article discusses "the little-known campaign by 100 Cuban exile pilots recruited by the CIA, including veterans of the [Bay of Pigs] invasion, to enter the Congo and stop leftist Simba warriors being reinforced by Castro troops, the Soviet Union and the Chinese. Castro had even sent Ernesto 'Che' Guevara to help the rebels. This time, the Cuban exiles defeated the communist threat, but with little fanfare or reward. Dubbed the Makasi unit, they became pioneers in the Congo wars that raged from 1962 to 1965."

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