COVERT ACTION

Generally

To the 1980s

Articles

Adler, Emanuel. "Executive Command and Control in Foreign Policy: The CIA's Covert Activities." Orbis 23, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 671-696.

Lowenthal finds "useful insights into the management of covert activities and some of the command and control problems that these activities can create" in Adler's article.

Anderson, Jim [LCDR/USNR (ret)], and Dirk A.D. Smith. "A Tale of Two Semi-Submersible Submarines." Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 4 (Dec. 2014): 31-41. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-58-no-4/gimik-and-skiff-a-tale-of-two-semi-submersible-submarines.html]

Two boats one each "at CIA and Fall River are actually the same design." One vessel, "[c]ode-named 'GIMIK,'" was to be an "infiltration asset[] for a [OSS] clandestine operations program called Project NAPKO, devised and headed by Colonel Carl Eifler." The other boat, "CIA's SKIFF Semi-submersible," "came close to operational use on at least two occasions," in 1959.

Associated Press. "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions." International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007. [http://www.iht.com]

From 1953 to 1967, Taiwanese pilots known as "The Black Bats" flew "more than 800 sorties over the Chinese mainland, dropping agents, testing radar responses and collecting air samples from suspected nuclear test sites." At a gathering in June 2007 in Hsinchu, northern Taiwan, "hundreds of Taiwanese observed a minute of silence for the 148 Black Bats who never returned from their missions and paid an emotional tribute to the few surviving members of the group." According to the veterans, "[t]he CIA provided the aircraft [and the training] for the missions.... They proudly display photographs taken with Ray Cline, then the agency's Taipei station chief."

See also, William B. Tomlinson, "Chinese Industry from the Air," Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50; and Benjamin Yeh, "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions," AFP, 23 Aug. 2010.

Center for National Security Studies. CIA's Covert Operations vs. Human Rights. Washington, DC: 1977. [Petersen]

Church, Frank.

1. "Covert Action: Swampland of American Foreign Policy." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 52, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1976): 7-11.

2. "Covert Operations." Center Magazine 9 (Mar.-Apr. 1976): 21-25. [Petersen]

Colby, William E. "The CIA's Covert Actions." Center Magazine, Mar.-Apr. 1975, 71-80. [Petersen]

Corke, Sarah-Jane. "George Kennan and the Inauguration of Political Warfare." Journal of Conflict Studies 26, no. 1 (Summer 2006): 98-117.

Falk, Richard A. "CIA Covert Action and International Law." Society 12, no. 3 (Mar.-Apr. 1975): 39-44.

Falk, Richard A. "President Gerald Ford, CIA Covert Operations, and the Status of International Law." American Journal of International Law 69, no. 2 (Apr. 1975): 354-358.

Finn, Peter, and Petra Couvée.

1. "During Cold War, CIA Used 'Doctor Zhivago' as a Tool to Undermine Soviet Union." Washington Post, 5 Apr. 2014. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"[M]ore than 130 newly declassified CIA documents ... detail the agency's secret involvement in the printing of 'Doctor Zhivago' -- an audacious plan that helped deliver the book into the hands of Soviet citizens who later passed it friend to friend, allowing it to circulate in Moscow and other cities in the Eastern Bloc. The book's publication and, later, the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Pasternak triggered one of the great cultural storms of the Cold War.... The CIA's role -- with its publication of a hardcover Russian-language edition printed in the Netherlands and a miniature, paperback edition printed at CIA headquarters -- has long been hidden."

See also, Celia Mansfield, "Using Literature to Lift the Iron Curtain: Declassified CIA Documents Reveal Agency's Role in Publishing the Russian Language Version of Doctor Zhivago," Intelligencer 20, no. 3 (Spring-Summer 2014): 23-28.

2. The Zhivago Affair: The Kremlin, the CIA, and the Battle Over a Forbidden Book. New York: Pantheon, 2014.

Peake, Studies 58.4 (Dec. 2014), declares that "The Zhivago Affair is a great story, wonderfully told." For Neal, Studies 59.2 (Jun. 2015), "[i]n addition to its historical significance of shedding light on a relatively unknown Cold War intelligence effort, The Zhivago Affair is also an excellent story with a wide cast of characters acting in front of a global backdrop."

3. The declassified CIA documents on the publication of Doctor Zhivago can be accessed online at: http://www.foia.cia.gov/collection/doctor-zhivago.

Ford, Harold P. "Piety and Wit: The Bad Effects of Covert CIA Activity." America, 11 Jan. 1975, 10-11. [Petersen]

Gelb, Leslie H. "Should We Play Dirty Tricks in the World?" New York Times Magazine, 21 Dec. 1975, 10-11 ff.

Halperin, Morton H. "Decision Making for Covert Operations." Society 12 (Mar.-Apr. 1975): 45-51. [Petersen]

Hook, Sidney. "The Strategy of Political Warfare." Chap. 31 in Political Power and Personal Freedom: Critical Studies in Democracy, Communism, and Civil Rights, 389-401. New York: Criterion, 1959.

The chapters in Political Power and Personal Freedom bring together previously published articles by Hook.

Laville, Helen. "The Memorial Day Statement: Women's Organizations in the 'Peace Offensive.'" Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 192-210.

The 1951 Memorial Day Statement, signed by the leaders of 10 women's organizations, "re-affirmed American women's gendered commitment to peace but defined this peace in a way which could oppose and thwart the aims of the Soviet peace offensive.... They became less partisans for peace and more advocates of a ... peace ... which demanded such corollaries as freedom and democracy."

Long, Stephen J.K. "Strategic Disorder, the Office of Policy Coordination and the Inauguration of US Political Warfare against the Soviet Bloc, 1948–50." Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 4 (Aug. 2012): 459-487.

"The US resort to political warfare against the Eastern Bloc was on the one hand too limited and small scale to achieve results....On the other hand, these activities were sufficiently conspicuous and threatening to arouse the concerted interest of the Soviet and local communist secret police services.... Beyond the fundamental strategic flaw that liberation pursued solely through political warfare was unfeasible, the entire organization of the political warfare campaign was beset by bureaucratic inconsistencies and tensions."

Loory, Stuart. "The CIA's Use of the Press: A 'Mighty Wurlitzer.'" Columbia Journalism Review, Sep.-Oct. 1974.

Mansfield, Celia. "Using Literature to Lift the Iron Curtain: Declassified CIA Documents Reveal Agency's Role in Publishing the Russian Language Version of Doctor Zhivago." Intelligencer 20, no. 3 (Spring-Summer 2014): 23-28.

The author provides context for the release of documents on the CIA's covert role in publishing Pasternak's epic novel in Russian in 1958. See also, Peter Finn and Petra Couvée, "During Cold War, CIA Used 'Doctor Zhivago' as a Tool to Undermine Soviet Union," Washington Post, 5 Apr. 2014.

Riffice, Albert E. "Intelligence and Covert Action." Studies in Intelligence 6, no. 1 (Winter 1962): 73-80.

The author looks at SOE's difficulties in World War II, and concludes that "the root of SOE's difficulties was its lack of coordination with the British espionage and counterintelligence services." At the end of the war, the responsibility for covert operations was returned to the jurisdiction of MI6.

Sheehan, Neil.

1. "Order by Johnson Reported Ending CIA Student Aid." New York Times, 15 Feb. 1967, 1.

President Johnson orders end to CIA subsidies to National Student Association and other student groups.

2. "A Student Group Concedes It Took Aid from CIA." New York Times, 14 Feb. 1967, 1.

In wake of the Ramparts article, National Student Association President Eugene Groves acknowledges that the organization had been subsidized by the CIA.

Steinmeyer, Walter. "The Intelligence Role in Counterinsurgency." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 4 (Fall 1965): 57-63.

The author seeks to outline "the part a civilian clandestine service should take in helping meet" the challenges posed in the U.S. effort to combat Communist-instigated "wars of national liberation."

Tomlinson, William B. "Chinese Industry from the Air." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50.

The "almost complete blackout of information" from China following the collapse of the Great Leap Forward in 1961 "would have left the economic-industrial intelligence officer quite desperate had it not been for the arrival on the scene of daring Chinese Nationalist pilots flying used U-2 aircraft."

See also, Associated Press, "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions," International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007; and Benjamin Yeh, "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions," AFP, 23 Aug. 2010.

Warner, Michael. "Sophisticated Spies: CIA's Links to Liberal Anti-Communists, 1949-1967." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 4 (Winter 1996-1997): 425-433.

This is a useful review of the issues surrounding the Ramparts (and subsequent) "revelations" in February 1967 about the CIA's subsidizing of the National Student Association and other private organizations. The CIA took flack from both sides of the political spectrum for its activities, as did the anti-Communist left.

Yeh, Benjamin. "Taiwan's Cold War Spy Pilots Reveal Secret Missions." AFP, 23 Aug. 2010. [http://www.afp.com]

Taiwanese pilots of the 35th "Black Cats" Squadron flew U-2 airplanes over China from 1961 until 1974. Their activities "made the squadron a key element in the intelligence relationship between the US government and Taiwan's Nationalist rulers." See also, Associated Press, "Taiwanese Spy Plane Pilots Honored for Perilous Cold War Missions," International Herald Tribune, 4 Jul. 2007; and William B. Tomlinson, "Chinese Industry from the Air," Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 2 (Spring 1967): 37-50.

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