Overseas Operations

Adams, Ephraim Douglass. Great Britain and the American Civil War. 2 vols. London: Longman, Green, 1925.

Anderson, Edward C. Confederate Foreign Agent: The European Diary of Major Edward C. Anderson. University, AL: Confederate Publications, 1976.

Bennett, John D. The London Confederates: The Officials, Clergy, Businessmen and Journalists Who Backed the American South during the Civil War. Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland, 2008.

From publisher: "Although the British government declared its neutrality during the American Civil War, London nevertheless became an important center of Confederate overseas operations. This work examines the extensive Confederate activities in London during the war, including diplomacy, propaganda, purchasing for the Army and Navy, spying, Cotton Loan, and various business associations; reflections of the Civil War in British art and literature; and the extent of British support for the South."

Bulloch, James Dunwoody. The Secret Service of the Confederate States in Europe; or, How the Confederate Cruisers Were Equipped. New York: Putnam's, 1884. Reprinted in 2 vols. New York: Thomas Yoseleff, 1959.

"Bulloch, a former U.S. Navy officer, served as the Confederacy's naval agent in Europe during the war." Sayle, "Nuggets from Intelligence History," IJI&C 1.2 (1986), fn. 2.

Cullop, Charles Painter. Confederate Propaganda in Europe, 1861-1865. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1969.

Lester, Richard I. Confederate Finance and Purchasing in Great Britain. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1975.

Constantinides: The author "describes Confederate uses of cover and go-betweens to purchase or lease ships and the methods that side employed to evade Union surveillance and British laws of neutrality.... Lester [also] shows the Union had created a well-organized and -developed system of espionage and surveillance against the Confederates."

Long, Renata Eley. In the Shadow of the Alabama: The British Foreign Office and the American Civil War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2015.

From publisher: "This book looks at an allegation of betrayal made against a young Foreign Office clerk, Victor Buckley, who, it was claimed, leaked privileged information to agents of the southern States during the American Civil War. As a consequence, the CSS Alabama narrowly escaped seizure by the British government and proceeded to wage war on American shipping."

Merli, Frank J. David M. Fahey, ed. The Alabama, British Neutrality, and the American Civil War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

From publisher: "At the request of Merli’s widow, David M. Fahey has edited this volume for publication. It offers a spirited critique of the way historians have presented the international dimension of the American Civil War. The book offers a fresh account of the escape of the CSS Alabama from British territorial waters in 1862, the decision of its captain, Raphael Semmes, to fight a Union gunboat off the coast of France in 1864, and the curious story of a British-built Chinese flotilla that could have become a small Confederate fleet had negotiations with the Chinese not broken down."

For reviews see Alvin, H-CivWar, H-Net Reviews, Nov., 2006, at:; and Weddle, The Journal of Military History 70.4 (Oct. 2006).

Milton, David Hepburn. Lincoln's Spymaster: Thomas Haines Dudley and the Liverpool Network. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003.

Seamon, Proceedings 129.9 (Sep. 2003), comments that Dudley, the U.S. consul in Liverpool, "seems to have worked almost 24 hours a day setting up an efficient spy network to keep tabs on Confederate efforts to acquire warships from British shipyards." Also, through his pamphlets and speeches, "Dudley had remarkable success in keeping the British working class firmly on the side of the Union." To Williams, Civil War Book Review [], this is an "engrossing, well-written story"; the author's "finely crafted work reads like a story of intrigue and deception as much as a historical text."

Owsley, Frank Lawrence. King Cotton Diplomacy: Foreign Relations of the Confederate States of America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931.

Owsley, Harriet C. "Henry Shelton Sanford and Federal Surveillance Abroad, 1861-1865." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 48, no. 2 (Sep. 1961): 211-228.

In 1861, Sanford "was appointed minister resident to Belgium.... One of Sanford's principal assignments ... was to prevent Confederate agents in Europe from obtaining warships, arms, munitions, and other supplies.... Sanford's principal method of countering the Confederates was to gather information on activities of theirs that violated the neutrality of the countries involved, and turn it over to the respective governments. His activities seriously damaged Confederate supply lines." O'Toole, Encyclopedia, pp. 401-402.

Thompson, Samuel Bernard. Confederate Purchasing Operations Abroad. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1973.

Reprint of 1935 edition. Sayle, "Nuggets from Intelligence History," IJI&C 1.2 (1986), fn. 2.

Wilson, Walter E., and Gary L. McKay. James D. Bulloch: Secret Agent and Mastermind of the Confederate Navy. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012.

Fuller, Proceedings 138.11 (Nov. 2012), comments that "there is much to admire here.... The authors write in a sort of jaunty, History Channel-speak that ... makes for an informative yet entertaining read." Nevertheless, "it might have made an even better history had the authors chosen to broaden their analytical focus to include other major players." In addition it is "surprising that this work does not seem to have explored the National Archives in Kew."

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