Intelligence Specific


Antonucci, Michael. "Code-Crackers: Cryptanalysis in the Civil War." Civil War Times Illustrated, Jul.-Aug. 1995, 46-53. []

This article describes Confederate and Union ciphers and each side's effort to read the other's messages.

Bakeless, John. Spies of the Confederacy. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970. New York: Dover 1997. [pb]

Constantinides notes that the "purist will object to the inclusion of combat intelligence personnel in a book with 'Spies' in the title. The space given to their efforts might better have been devoted to other intelligence activities, such as those of Confederate agents abroad, which are not addressed." Pforzheimer adds that "some spy memoirs on which [Bakeless] draws are often exaggerated, and ... many of the original records were destroyed in 1865."

Bakeless, Katherine (Little), and John Bakeless. Confederate Spy Stories. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1973.

Bates, David Homer. "A Rebel Cipher Despatch." Harper's 97 (Jun. 1898): 105-109. [Petersen]

Blanton, Margaret G. "Moment of Truth." Civil War Times Illustrated 6, no. 6 (1967): 20-23.

Petersen: "Espionage by members of Coleman's scouts."

Brown, R. Shepard. Stringfellow of the Fourth: The Amazing Career of the Most Successful Confederate Scout. New York: Crown, 1960.

See James D. Peavey, Confederate Scout: Virginia's Frank Stringfellow (Onancock, VA: Eastern Shore, 1956).

Canan, Howard V. "Confederate Military Intelligence." Maryland Historical Magazine 59, no. 1 (1964): 34-51.

Subtopics (many quite brief): Conditions Before the War; Efforts at the Outbreak of War; Combat-Intelligence; Newspapers; Observation-Balloons; Deception; War Department Espionage [Signal and Secret Service Bureau]; Counter-Intelligence; Sabotage; Guerrillas; Foreign Intelligence; Subversive Activities; Conclusions.

Castleman, John B. Active Service. Louisville, KY: Courier-Journal Co., 1917. [Petersen]

Conrad, Thomas N.

1. A Confederate Spy: A Story of the Civil War. New York: J.S. Ogilvie, 1892.

2. A Rebel Scout. Washington, DC: National Publishing, 1904.

Donnelly, Ralph W. "District of Columbia Confederates." Military Affairs 23 (Winter 1959-1960). [Petersen]

Gaddy, David Winfred.

1. "Confederate Spy Unmasked: An Afterword." Manuscripts 30, no. 2 (Spring 1978): 94.

Calder: The author discovered "the name of a Confederate spy by using tombstone records."

2. "An Evaluation-Based Incentive Award Program for SIGINT." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1994): 47-48.

From P.G.T. Beauregard's Headquarters, 4 Jan. 1864: "[A]ny member of the signal corps who shall obtain an important message of the enemy shall be entitled to a furlough of from ten to twenty days, according to the importance of the message, which shall be determined by these headquarters."

3. "Gray Cloaks and Daggers." Civil War Times Illustrated 14, no. 4 (Jul. 1975): 20-27.

4. "John Williamson Palmer: Confederate Agent." Maryland Historical Magazine 83 (Summer 1988): 98-110.

Palmer was a Confederate spy and propagandist.

5. "Rochford's Cipher: A Discovery in Confederate Cryptography." Cryptologia 16, no. 4 (Oct. 1992): 347-353.

6. "Secret Communications of a Confederate Naval Agent." Manuscripts 30, no. 1 (Winter 1978): 49-55.

7. "William Norris and the Confederate Signal and Secret Service Bureau." Maryland Historical Magazine 70, no. 2 (Summer 1975): 167-188.

Norris headed the Signal Bureau, within the adjutant and inspector general's office of the Confederate War Department, and the War Department's Secret Service Bureau, an organic part of the Signal Service.

Hall, James O. "The Spy Harrison." Civil War Times 24, no. 10 (1986): 18-25.

This article is the result of historical spadework to identify the Confederate agent, "the Spy Harrison," who informed Longstreet on June 28, 1863, that the Army of the Potomac was in Frederick, Maryland, and marching northward. This information led Lee to move to concentrate his army near Gettysburg. The incident forms the opening of Michael Shaara's popular novel, The Killer Angels.

Hemming, Charles C. "A Confederate Odyssey." American Heritage 36, no. 1 (1984): 69-84.

Petersen: "Espionage by an escaped prisoner of war."

Hotchkiss, Jedediah. Make Me a Map of the Valley: The Civil War Journal of Stonewall Jackson's Topographer. Ed., Archie P. McDonald. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1973.

Luvaas, Jay. "Lee at Gettysburg: A General Without Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (1990): 116-135.

Mann, J.T. A Spy in the Service of the Confederacy: How It Feels to Be Hung by the Neck and Die. Pensacola, FL: 1908. [Petersen]

McDonald, Ward. Ed., Mary M. Willis and David Pettus, contributors. Johnny Reb: Confederate Spy -- Memories of Thrilling Events of the Civil War. New York: Larksdale via American History Book Publishing Co., 1992.

Surveillant 2.6: "Memoirs of Ward McDonald [1839-1904], Captain, C.S.A., 4th Alabama Cavalry, written for the Moulton Advertiser, Moulton, Alabama."

Peavey, James D. Confederate Scout: Virginia's Frank Stringfellow. Onancock, VA: Eastern Shore, 1956.

See R. Shepard Brown, Stringfellow of the Fourth: The Amazing Career of the Most Successful Confederate Scout (New York: Crown, 1960).

Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1986.

Tipton, MI 21.4: Morgan "contributed significantly to the Confederate war effort. His primary offering was intelligence.... Ranging from middle Tennessee to the Ohio River, Morgan scouted the Yankee movements, intuitively discerning intent and relaying that intelligence to his superiors.... Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) may have been born in Kentucky in 1862." Morgan had in his command a Canadian telegrapher who "developed a portable system which allowed him to tap into Federal telegraph lines, intercepting messages and inserting 'imitative communications deception'.... I highly recommend this book ... as a good read and as documentation of the history of combat intelligence operations."

Sayle, Edward F. "Nuggets from Intelligence History." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 2 (1986): 115-126.

"During the U.S. Civil War, Confederate President Jefferson Davis created an economic intelligence operation in the covert mode and served as its first and only case officer throughout its existence." The operation involved the opening of a land route (a "line") between Maryland and Virginia for the clandestine movement of people and money and of an "underground cotton network" to finance the Southern war effort. The operation was run by Col. Ralph Abercrombie and began in the second half of 1863. Abercrombie's "underground railroad" also transported Lord John Brewerton to and from a meeting in Richmond with Davis.

Sears, Stephen W. "The Last Word on the Lost Order." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 4, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 66-73.

Stith, S.B. Foundation for Victory: Operations and Intelligence Harmoniously Combine in Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862), A Master's Thesis. Monteray, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 1993. [Surveillant 3.4/5]

Swanberg, W.A. "Was the Secretary of War a Traitor?" American Heritage 14, no. 2 (1963): 34-37, 96-97. [Petersen]

Tatum, Georgia Lee. Disloyalty in the Confederacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1934. [Reprint] New York: AMS Press, 1970.

This book looks at the subversion activities of dissident Southerners, including organizations such as the Peace and Constitutional Society, the Heroes of America, and the Peace Society. While their activities were generally focused on undermining the Confederate war effort, the relationships between these societies and Union intelligence is unclear.

Taylor, Charles E. The Signal and Secret Service of the Confederate States. Hamlet, NC: North Carolina Booklet, 1903. Harmans, MD: Toomey Press, n.d.

Petersen identifies the author as a "[f]ormer member of the Confederate Signal Bureau." Constantinides laments that Taylor produced only "a skimpy work with a minimum of information that gave only a tantalizing peek into a couple of intelligence activities of the service."

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