AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

Campaigns, Battles, and
Air Reconnaissance

Included here:

1. Campaigns and Battles

2. Air Reconnaissance

1. Campaigns and Battles

Byrne, Robert. "Combat Intelligence: Key to Victory at Gettysburg." Military Intelligence 2 (Fall 1976): 5-9. [Petersen]

Canan, Howard V. "Influence of Military Intelligence (Second Manassas)." Armor 64 (Sep.-Oct. 1955): 34-41. [Petersen]

Curts, Bob. "U.S. Grant Goes to Shiloh: More Thoughts on Warning and Surprise." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 5, no. 1 (Winter 1989): 5-8.

Decker, Peter B. [CDR/USN (Ret.)] Part 1 of 2. "A Naval Victory & Intelligence Failure." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 19, no. 4 (Dec. 2003): 17-18. Part 2 of 2. Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 20, no. 1 (Feb. 2004): 25.

On Battle of Shiloh.

Elley, B.L. Grant's Final Campaign: Intelligence and Communications Support. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1992. [Surveillant 3.2/3]

Feis, William B.

1. "Neutralizing the Valley: The Role of Military Intelligence in the Defeat of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, 1864-1865." Civil War History 39, no. 3 (Sep. 1993): 199-215.

ProQuest: "Good information coming at the right time was a key asset in the Union high command's effort to remove the Valley's strategic assets from Robert E. Lee's grasp and eliminate Early's chances to imitate Stonewall Jackson's Shenandoah Valley masterpiece of 1962."

2. "A Union Military Intelligence Failure: Jubal Early's Raid, June 12-July 14, 1864." Civil War History 36, no. 3 (Sep. 1990). [Petersen]

Luvaas, Jay. "Lee at Gettysburg: A General Without Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990): 116-135.

"Lee .. was crippled for want of good intelligence.... Clearly the absence of intelligence narrowed his options.... [I]t was at the operational level that the lack of timely intelligence had its most serious effects.... Stuart's failure to provide timely information of enemy activities deprived Lee of any opportunity to isolate and defeat Meade in detail."

Luvaas, Jay. "The Role of Intelligence in the Chancellorsville Campaign, April-May 1963." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990): 99-115.

"[I]n searching for the reasons why Lee had been able to outmaneuver superior numbers in this week's fighting in the wilderness of Virginia, high on the list would be his superior use of intelligence, both at the operational and the tactical level."

Millican, C. Bowie, Robert M. Gelman, and Thomas A. Stanhope. "Lost Order, Lost Cause." Studies in Intelligence 2, no. 1 (Winter 1958): 103-113.

Lee's Special Orders 191 of 9 September 1862, a copy of which fell into Union hands, set out the order of march for his invasion of the North. The Battle of Antietam on 17 September 1862 was not a time or place of Lee's choosing, and he was forced to withdraw back into Virginia. The authors extend the ramifications of the failed invasion to determining the outcome of the war.

Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992.

According to Hamilton, MI 19.3, Sears has written "a superb study of warfare.... It is during the Peninsula Campaign that aerial balloon reconnaissance is first used, and Sears explains how this impacted the battles.... He shows how Lee was able to capitalize on both the reconnaissance of J.E.B. Stuart and a detailed knowledge of how McClellan would react in certain situations. Sears shows how McClellan was a victim of poor intelligence, in particular, the grossly exaggerated troop estimates from his intelligence chief Detective Allan Pinkerton."

Tipton, MI 21.1, adds that this book includes "accounts of intelligence activities both sides pursued throughout the campaign." The author "weaves a tale of use and misuse of intelligence assets ... [and] cites many ... examples of intelligence operations..., all of which would be at home on the modern battlefield."

Stith, S.B. Foundation for Victory: Operations and Intelligence Harmoniously Combine in Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign (1862), A Master's Thesis. Monteray, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, 1993. [Surveillant 3.4/5]

2. Air Reconnaissance

Beaumont, Frederick F. "On Balloon Reconnaissance as Practiced by the American Army." Papers of the Royal Engineer Corps 12 New Series (1963): 71-86. [Petersen]

Crouch, Tom D. The Eagle Aloft: Two Centuries of the Balloon in America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983.

Davis, Daniel T. "The Air Role in the War Between the States." Air University Review 27 (Jul.-Aug. 1976): 13-29. [Petersen]

Evans, Charles M. War of the Aeronauts: The History of Ballooning in the Civil War. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2002.

For Howey, Air & Space Power Journal 17.3 (Fall 2003), this is "an excellent history of the birth of American airpower.... Evans provides an admirable overview of early ballooning and of the first US and Confederate air forces. Woven around the universal themes of personalities and resistance to change, the book devotes most of its text to balloonist Thaddeus Lowe and his exploits with the Union Army of the Potomac.... Aside from the fact that the author seems to accept Lowe's writings and accounts too uncritically, the book offers a well-balanced account of its subject."

Haydon, F. Stansbury. Aeronautics in the Union and Confederate Armies. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1941.

Infield, Glenn B. Unarmed and Unafraid: The First Complete History of the Men, Missions, Training, and Techniques of Aerial Reconnaissance. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

According to Petersen, "Infield ... treats air reconnaissance from balloons to modern aircraft."

Lowe, Thaddeus S.C.

Lowe was one of the pioneers in using balloons for operational reconnaissance, and as a civilian, headed the balloon corps of the Army of the Potomac from August 1861 to May 1863.

1. "Balloon Operations during the Civil War." In The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Series 3, vol. 3. Washington, DC: GPO, 1899.

2. "Observation Balloons in the Battle of Fair Oaks." American Review of Reviews 63, no. 2 (1911): 186-190. [Petersen]

3. Eds., Michael Jaeger and Carol Lauritzen. Memoirs of Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, Chief of the Aeronautic Corps of the Army of the United States During the Civil War: My Balloons in Peace and War. London and New York: Edwin Mellen, 2004.

Miller, Civil War Times, http://www.historynet.com/reviews, notes that these are Lowe's unpublished memoirs completed in 1911. "Written long after the war, Lowe's work contains some minor errors and self-promotion. In addition, in the later chapters -- dealing with the period after his resignation [after the Battle of Chancellorsville] -- Lowe relies heavily on previously published reports and articles rather than his own experiences."

MacCloskey, Monro. From Gasbags to Spaceships: The Story of the U.S. Air Force. New York: Richards Rosen, 1968.

Petersen says that this work includes "information on air intelligence within the broader context of Air Force history."

Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992.

According to Hamilton, MI 19.3, Sears has written "a superb study of warfare.... It is during the Peninsula Campaign that aerial balloon reconnaissance is first used, and Sears explains how this impacted the battles.... He shows how Lee was able to capitalize on both the reconnaissance of J.E.B. Stuart and a detailed knowledge of how McClellan would react in certain situations. Sears shows how McClellan was a victim of poor intelligence, in particular, the grossly exaggerated troop estimates from his intelligence chief Detective Allan Pinkerton."

Tipton, MI 21.1, adds that this book includes "accounts of intelligence activities both sides pursued throughout the campaign." The author "weaves a tale of use and misuse of intelligence assets ... [and] cites many ... examples of intelligence operations..., all of which would be at home on the modern battlefield."

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