CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

Culture and Components

Directorate of Operations

C - L

Campbell, Matthew. "Reborn CIA Dusts off Cloak and Dagger." Sunday Times (London), 14 Mar. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"After years of bemoaning their absence of purpose in a post-Soviet world, the CIA's agents have found a friend in [DCI George] Tenet.... Because of his appreciation of traditional methods of spying, he has developed a warm relationship with them.... In a move that has raised eyebrows among some critics..., Tenet has been quietly resurrecting the so-called Directorate of Operations, the clandestine branch responsible for espionage and covert operations around the world."

Cogan, Charles G. "The In-Culture of the DO." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 1 (Jan. 1993): 78-86.

[Cohen, David.] "Mr. David Cohen: Speaker, CIRA Luncheon, 13 May 1996." CIRA Newsletter 21, no. 2 (Summer 1996): 3-6.

Text of speech by the CIA's Deputy Director for Operations (DDO) to the Central Intelligence Retirees' Association. Cohen's thrust here is to convey "a general sense of the current direction of the Directorate of Operations."

Dreyfuss, Robert. "Risky Business." New Republic, 5-12 Jan. 1998, 18-20.

The author discusses the CIA's National Resources Division, the use of nonofficial cover, Diversified Cover Officers, and collection of economic intelligence with the cooperation of U.S. businesses. The conclusion: "[T]he risks outweigh the benefits." Beyond the threat that such activities raise for American businesspeople overseas, "it is difficult to make the case that matters relating to economic competitiveness are serious enough to national security that they justify illegal, clandestine methods."

Dujmovic, Nicholas. "Extraordinary Fidelity: Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952–73." Studies in Intelligence 50, no. 4 (2006): 21-36.

Associated Press, "John Downey, Judge and Former POW, Dies at 84," 17 Nov. 2014. See also, Donald Gregg, "In Memoriam -- Jack Downey," Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 4 (Dec. 2014): vii-viii.

"Shot down over Communist China on their first operational mission in 1952, these young men [John T. Downey and Richard G. Fecteau] spent the next two decades imprisoned, often in solitary confinement, while their government officially denied they were CIA officers. Fecteau was released in 1971, Downey in 1973. They came home to an America vastly different from the place they had left, but both adjusted surprisingly well and continue to live full lives."

Ben Macintyre, "The Lost 20 Years of CIA Spies Caught in China Trap," Times (London), 21 Apr. 2007, picks up on the Downey and Fecteau story from Dujmovic's Studies article.

Ellison, Dawn. "One Woman's Contribution to Social Change at CIA." Studies in Intelligence 46, no. 3 (2002): 45-53.

This article tracks Harritte Thompson's discrimination suit against the Directorate of Operations, 1977-1980.

Engelberg, Stephen. "Webster Dismisses or Disciplines." New York Times, 18 Dec. 1987. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to administration officials on 17 December 1987, DCI William H. Webster "has dismissed two field operatives and disciplined three senior officials for improper actions during the Iran-contra affair.... Webster acted after receiving a report from Russell Bruemmer, the lawyer he named as special counsel to examine the role of agency officials in the sale of arms to Iran and the diversion of some profits to the contras." Although Webster's statement did not name the two dismissed officials, administration officials said they "were Joe Fernandez, the former station chief in Costa Rica, and the chief of base in Honduras, whose identity has not been publicly disclosed."

Administration officials said that the "senior officials disciplined ... were Alan Fiers, chief of the Central America Task Force, who was reprimanded; Duane C. Clarridge, head of the C.I.A.'s counter-terrorism unit, who was stripped of that job, reprimanded and urged to take early retirement; and Charles Allen, a national intelligence officer, who was reprimanded. A reprimand means the employee cannot be promoted or given a bonus for two years." The text of Bruemmer's report "is classified and was not released."

Engelberg, Stephen. "Webster Names Ex-Agent to Top C.I.A. Post." New York Times, 9 Dec. 1987. [http://www.nytimes.com]

DCI William H. Webster on 8 December 1987 named Richard F. Stolz to head the CIA's Directorate of Operations. Stolz "retired from the agency in 1981 as chief of the division that handles operations in the Soviet Union," after DCI William J. Casey named Max Hugel, a businessman, to head operations. Stolz replaces Clair E. George.

Everett, James. The Making and Breaking of an American Spy. Durham, CT: Strategic Book Group, 2011.

According to Peake, Studies 55.3 (Sep. 2011) and Intelligencer 19.1 (Winter-Spring 2012), this is the story of the author's "17-year career in the CIA as an officer under non-official cover (NOC)." Because the post-Watergate investigations found that "E. Howard Hunt worked for the same firm as Everett," the CIA's relationship with the firm and Everett's employment were ended. This work "is a sad personal story that conveys the difficult life of NOC officers."

Haberstich, Art. "The Mariner as Agent." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 1 (Winter 1966): 45-55.

"It is common knowledge that intelligence services use seamen of their own or friendly countries' merchant fleets to make clandestine port observations in denied areas. The potential for clandestine activities broadens considerably, however, when we consider for use as carriers and agents the merchant ships and seamen of the target country itself."

Hollyman, Francis. "Intelligence Gathering in an Unlettered Land." Studies in Intelligence 3, no. 3 (Summer 1959): 15-21.

The author surveys the difficulties of collecting political intelligence in countries with a low literacy rate and ruled by a small and narrow elite.

Jehl, Douglas. "Despite a Pledge to Speed Work, Fixing an Internal Problem Takes Time at the C.I.A." New York Times, 10 Jun. 2004. [http://www.nytimes.com]

"The Central Intelligence Agency has yet to put in place a plan to address what senior officials have described as a major flaw in its operations, despite a pledge four months ago that the problem would be resolved within 30 days. The problem, which contributed to errors in the agency's prewar estimates on Iraq, is rooted in practices that severely limit how much information about human sources is shared with analysts who produce intelligence assessments, according to senior intelligence officials."

Johnson, William R.

1. "Clandestinity and Current Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 3 (Fall 1976): 15-69. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 118-184. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

Clark comment: The argument that "the production of current intelligence and the conduct of espionage are incompatible" cannot be better made. Whether you agree or disagree with Johnson's thesis, it is necessary to either remake or refute the points he makes. In essence, Johnson looks at "the effect of anti-clandestine or semi-clandestine or non-clandestine collection for production in volume on the ability of the Clandestine Service to conduct espionage for strategic coverage" and finds that effect to be totally negative. This article should be mandatory reading for anyone seriously interested in "reforming" American intelligence.

2. "The Elephants and the Gorillas." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 42-56.

Clark comment: This is a succinct rendition of the conclusions reached in Johnson's classic article in Studies in Intelligence, "Clandestinity and Current Intelligence." He argues that "production of current intelligence and the conduct of espionage ... are not compatible and should not be conducted by the same organization."

Kroger, Charles A., Jr. "ELINT: A Scientific Intelligence System." Studies in Intelligence 2, no. 1 (Winter 1958): 71-83.

"This primer on ELINT (electronic intelligence) ... provides a brief history of the field as well as a good explanation of what it is and how it works. Includes a brief description of CIA's (and the DO's) role in ELINT."

Lagrone, James J. "The Hotel in Operations." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 4 (Fall 1965): 43-56.

This article "describes the systems used by large hotels to check and control their guests and ... examines the staff positions from the viewpoint of the desirability of different employees as agents for operational tasks."

Lambridge, Wayne. "A Note on KGB Style." Studies in Intelligence 15, no. 1 (Winter 1971): 115-121.

A look at how the KGB does business.

Loeb, Vernon. "Back Channels: The Intelligence Community -- Company of Spies." Washington Post, 21 Sep. 1999, A17. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

The new DDO James L. Pavitt has named Hugh Turner as Associate Deputy Director for Operations; Barry G. Royden as associate deputy director in charge of counterintelligence; John F. Nelson as associate deputy director for resources, plans and policy; and Stephen W. Richter as director of the DO's technology management group.

Loeb, Vernon. "IntelligenCIA: Rebuilding Clandestine Operations." Washington Post, 20 Sep. 1999. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

DDO James L. "Pavitt, 53, a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Missouri," served tours "in Austria (1976-1978), Germany (1978-1980), Malaysia (1980-1983) and Luxembourg (1983-86).... When he first returned from overseas, Pavitt became special assistant" to then DDO Richard Stolz. In 1990, he was detailed "to the National Security Council as director for intelligence programs and became special assistant to the president for national security affairs during the final year of the Bush administration in 1992. He then went back to Langley and became deputy director for operations at the CIA's Nonproliferation Center, where he served until he was asked to start up a counterproliferation division inside the DO in 1995. From there, he became [DDO Jack] Downing's deputy two years ago before [DCI George] Tenet named him DDO in August" 1999.

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