CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

The 1970s

Congress Investigates U.S. Intelligence

U - Z

 

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Center for the Study of Intelligence. Ed. Nicholas Dujmovic. "Oral History: Reflections of DCI[s] Colby and Helms on the CIA’s 'Time of Troubles.'" Studies in Intelligence 51, no. 3 (2007): 11-28. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol51no3/index.html]

"Colby and Helms were interviewed on 15 March and 2 February 1988, respectively, as part of an effort by the Center for the Study of Intelligence to compile the perspectives of former Agency leaders on what has often been termed the CIA’s 'Time of Troubles' in the 1970s. The perspectives of these two officials, different in several respects, illustrate the dilemmas a secret intelligence agency faces in serving a democracy."

U.S. Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States [Rockefeller Commission]. Report to the President. Washington, DC: GPO, 1975. [Available at http://history-matters.com/archive/contents/church/contents_church_reports_rockcomm.htm]

Pforzheimer calls the Rockefeller Commission Report "a clear and detailed account of CIA's activities in the domestic field, particularly in the light of the times and circumstances in which they occurred." Lowenthal notes that the Report "found instances of illegalities and recommended reform"; this is a "key document in the history of U.S. intelligence."

U.S. Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy [Murphy Commission]. Report of the Commission. Washington, DC: GPO, 1975.

According to Pforzheimer, the "study looks at the entirety of foreign policy.... Chapter 7 ... [recommends] [f]ourteen specific changes in intelligence.... Some of the changes have since been adopted, some have been overtaken by events, and some have been ignored. Several volumes of appendices ... contain articles prepared by scholars and experts.... Appendix U, in Volume 7, includes the seven articles of value to the intelligence professional."

U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Intelligence. Recommendations of the Final Report of the House Select Committee on Intelligence. House Report No. 94-833. Washington, DC: GPO, 1976.

Clark comment: This is the report of the "Pike Committee." Because of disagreement over the Committee's insistence on including classified material that the White House wanted omitted, the formal report was never formally published. This is the Recommendations section of the Report. Six volumes of unclassified hearings were also published by the Committee. Pforzheimer notes that these hearings did "not have the depth or balance of the Senate Select Committee hearings.... However, they should receive the study of professional intelligence officers."

A bootlegged draft copy of the Report was carried in The Village Voice (New York) on 16 February 1976 ("The CIA Report the President Doesn't Want You to Read," pp. 69-92) and 23 February 1976 ("How Ford, Kissinger and the CIA Obstructed the House Probe," pp. 59-68). That version was subsequently published in the U.K. as CIA: The Pike Report (Nottingham: Spokesman Books, 1977).

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Human Resources. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. Human Drug Testing by the CIA: Hearings. 95th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC: GPO, 1977. [Petersen]

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Subcommittee on Health, and the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure of the Committee on the Judiciary. Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Human-use Experimentation Programs of the Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency: Joint Hearings, Sept. 10, 12 and Nov. 7, 1975. 94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC: GPO, 1976. [Petersen]

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Staff Report. Covert Action in Chile: 1963-1973. Washington, DC: GPO, 1975. [http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/pdfs94th/94chile.pdf]

Conclusion: "Was the United States DIRECTLY involved, covertly, in the 1973 coup in Chile? The Committee has found no evidence that it was."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report. 94th Cong., 2d sess. S. Report No. 94-755, 6 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1976.

This is the Church Committee report.

Vol. I: Foreign and Military Intelligence.

Vol. II: Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans.

Vol. III: Supplemental Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans.

Vol. IV: Supplemental Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence and Military Intelligence.

Clark comment: This volume contains the "History of the Central Intelligence Agency," written by Committee staffer Anne Karalekas. It was also published as Anne Karalekas, History of the Central Intelligence Agency (Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1977). This reprint has itself been reprinted, with an additional documentary appendix: William M. Leary, ed., The Central Intelligence Agency: History and Documents (University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1984).

Pforzheimer: "While somewhat biased and uneven ... on the role of clandestine collection and covert action, this 'History' is probably the best text publicly available on the history of the CIA."

Vol. V: The Investigation of the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy -- Performance of the Intelligence Agencies.

Vol. VI: Supplemental Reports on Intelligence Activities.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings. 94th Cong., 1st & 2d sess. 7 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1975-1976.

Transcripts from the Hearings of the Church Committee. The range of topics illustrated in the seven volumes serves to remind that the CIA was not the sole target of these hearings.

Vol I: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents,

Vol II: Huston Plan,

Vol III: Internal Revenue Service,

Vol IV: Mail Opening,

Vol V: The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights,

Vol VI: Federal Bureau of Investigation,

Vol VII: Covert Action.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders. 94th Cong., 1st sess. S. Report No. 94-465. Washington, DC: GPO, 1975. [Available at: http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/pdfs94th/94465.pdf]

Report from the Church Committee.

Village Voice (New York).

1. "The CIA Report the President Doesn't Want You to Read," 16 Feb. 1976, 69-92.

2. "How Ford, Kissinger and the CIA Obstructed the House Probe," 23 Feb. 1976, 59-68.

These two articles are a bootlegged draft copy of the "Pike Committee" Report. See U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Intelligence [Pike Committee]. Recommendations of the Final Report of the House Select Committee on Intelligence. House Report No. 94-833. Washington, DC: GPO, 1976.

Woods, Randall B. Shadow Warrior: William Egan Colby and the CIA. New York: Basic Books, 2013.

Clark comment: This work has been met with widely divergent opinions.

To Goulden, Washington Times, 10 May 2013, and Intelligencer 20.1 (Spring-Summer 2013), this book "relies heavily upon secondary sources and offers very little fresh information about Colby. Further, Woods drops some conspiratorial hints that should raise eyebrows among persons familiar with the intelligence world."

Coffey, Studies 58.1 (Mar. 2014), also complains that the author "relies heavily on secondary sources -- including the spreading bad habit among spy historians of quoting Tim Weiner's dubious Legacy of Ashes.... Regrettably, Woods's work needed fact-checking; it contained some 30 factual errors, a number of them of the easy-to-know variety.... Other errors required some digging but are more consequential."

Conversely, Klehr, WSJ (13 Apr. 2013), says that the author's "carefully researched biography ... provides a favorable but critical evaluation of a man whose undeniable talents did not prepare him to lead America's most prominent spy agency at its most perilous moment." For Schwab, IJI&C 27.2 (Summer 2014), this is a "richly textured, nuanced, and comprehensive biography." And a Publishers Weekly reviewer (14 Jan. 2013), finds that "Wood's thoroughly entertaining portrait reveals plenty of warts, as well as a thoughtful character, surprisingly liberal and sophisticated about the limitations of CIA derring-do."

Walker, Wilson Quarterly (Spring 2013), calls Shadow Warrior an "excellent and thorough biography" that provides a "subtle and sympathetic analysis.... Woods crafts a fascinating tale of an American life that was shaped by World War II, the Cold War, and the Vietnam War, and the challenge of remaining a decent and liberal human being while fighting these conflicts ruthlessly."

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