The 1970s

Congress Investigates U.S. Intelligence

A - L

Baskir, Lawrence M. "Reflections on the Senate Investigations of Army Surveillance." Indiana Law Journal 49 (Summer 1974): 618-653.

Although the CIA has come to be most associated with the Senate investigations of the mid-1970s, the hearings were much more inclusive, touching multiple agencies and, for this article, the Army's substantial domestic surveillance activities.

Bowman, M. E. "The Legacy of the Church Committee." Intelligencer 14, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 27-34.

The system of legislative and regulatory compromises that followed the Church Committee investigations "has served the nation well for more than two decades." However, "terrorism represents an unprecedented confluence of phenomena that belies the traditional separation of law enforcement and intelligence.... What we have seen thus far in the war on terrorism is unlike any other domestic crisis response in our history. Authorities have been broadened to meet the new challenge, but there have been no concessions of [the] rights" of U.S. Persons.

Branch, Taylor.

1. "Playing Both Sides Against the Middle: M. Rogivin Representing the CIA and Public Interest Clients." Esquire 86 (Sep. 1976): 17-18. [Petersen]

2. "The Trial of the CIA." New York Times Magazine, 2 Sep. 1976, 35 ff. [Petersen]

Colby, William E. "After Investigating U.S. Intelligence." In The Role of American Intelligence Organizations, ed. George Whitman, 133-135. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1976. [Petersen]

Columbia Journalism Review. Editors. "CIA, FBI, and the Media: Excerpts from the Senate Report on Intelligence Activities." 15 (Jul. 1976): 37- 42. [Petersen]

Donner, Frank J. "Investigating the FBI and the CIA." Current 172 (Apr. 1975): 31-37. [Petersen]

Donovan, Thomas A. "The CIA Investigation: Asking the Unthinkable?" Foreign Service Journal 52 (Oct. 1975): 19-20. [Petersen]

Flannery, James E. "Thoughts on the Craft of Intelligence." Periscope 1, no. 1 (1975): 3-9; and 1, no. 2 (1975): 5-10.

CIA-supportive arguments from the first issue of the in-house organ of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO).

Ford, Harold P. William E. Colby as Director of Central Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency: CIA History Staff, 1993 [declassified 10 Aug. 2011]. [Available in four parts at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB362/index.htm]

In an introduction and review accompanying the National Security Archive's publication of Ford's history, John Prados finds some shortcomings in Ford's depiction of Colby's tenure as DCI. Nevertheless, he believes that the work "is especially worth reading for the attention it brings to a number of issues.... Harold Ford has refined our understanding of the precursor events that helped create the modern American intelligence system. These origins throw needed backlight on arrangements for congressional oversight, and the competition between that oversight and presidential control which still drives the U.S. intelligence community today."

Freeman, J. Leiper. "Investigating the Executive Intelligence: The Fate of the Pike Committee." Capitol Studies, 5 (Fall 1977): 103-118.

Haines, Gerald K. "The Pike Committee Investigations and the CIA." Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1998-1999, 81-92. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/winter98_99/art07.html]

"With the investigations, the CIA ... became a focal point in the ongoing battle between the Congress and the executive branch over foreign policy issues and the 'imperial presidency.'"

Harris, Louis. "35% Support Ford-Named CIA Panel." Washington Post, 17 Feb. 1975, A3.

On appointment of Rockefeller Commission.

Hersh, Seymour M.

On the impact of Hersh's December 1974-January 1975 articles in the New York Times, see Cynthia M. Nolan, "Seymour Hersh's Impact on the CIA," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 18-34.

1. "Huge C.I.A. Operation Reported in U.S. Against Anti-War Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years." New York Times, 22 Dec. 1974, 1, 26.

And thus was the barn door opened....

2. "Proxmire to Seek Inquiry on C.I.A. over Role in U.S." New York Times, 23 Dec. 1974, 1.

3. "Report on C.I.A. Is Praised, But Recommendations Are Called Weak." New York Times, 12 Jun. 1975, 23.

On report of Rockefeller Commission.

4. "At Its Best, How Good Is C.I.A. in a Democracy?" New York Times, 15 Jun. 1975, sec. 4, 1.

Horrock, Nicholas M.

1. "National Security Agency Reported Eavesdropping on Most Private Cables." New York Times, 8 Aug. 1975, 1.

L. Britt Snider, "Recollections from the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA," Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000), 50/fn. 5, suggests that the leak that was the basis for this story likely came from the staff of the Church Committee.

2. "Administration Will Resist Curbs on Overseas Spying." New York Times, 19 Oct. 1975, 29.

3. "Intelligence Report Leaks Denounced by White House." New York Times, 27 Jan. 1976, 1.

On leaks from Pike Committee report.

4. "Senate Intelligence Panel Calls for a Law to Curb Covert Action as Implement of Foreign Policy." New York Times, 27 Apr. 1976.

"The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities, concluding its 15-month-long investigation, today urged Congress to adopt a new, omnibus law covering foreign and military intelligence gathering that would create charters for the major agencies and sharply limit the use of covert action as a tool of foreign policy."

Hudec, James G. "Commentary: Unlucky SHAMROCK -- The View from the Other Side." Studies in Intelligence 10 (Winter-Spring 2001): 85-94. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/winter_spring01/article12.pdf]

This commentary is a response to L. Britt Snider, "Recollections from the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA," Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000). Hudec was an attorney in NSA's Office of General Counsel during the 1974-1975 timeframe.

Johnson, Loch K. "Congressional Supervision of America's Secret Agencies: The Experience and Legacy of the Church Committee." Public Administration Review 64, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2004): 3-14.

Johnson, Loch K. A Season of Inquiry: The Senate Intelligence Investigation. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1985. A Season of Inquiry: Congress and Intelligence. Chicago: Dorsey, 1988. [pb] JK468I6J64

Clark comment: Johnson was a staff member of the Church Committee. This work details the committee's inner workings.

Strong, IJI&C 1.2, sees A Season of Inquiry as "very conversational." Johnson is "disturbingly observant of institutional peculiarities and individual proclivities.... What is brought into question here is the basic institutional competence of the Senate." For Lowenthal, Johnson is "predisposed favorably towards Church"; but he "also notes the Chairman's shortcomings and their effects on the investigation." Writing some years after its original publication, Valcourt, IJI&C, 5.2, calls the book the "best study of the early years of today's congressional oversight committees."

See also Edward F. Sayle, "Ten Years Later: The Church Committee Investigations Reexamined," Periscope 11, no. 1 (1986): 4-8.

Kitts, Kenneth. "Commission Politics and National Security: Gerald Ford's Response to the CIA Controversy of 1975." Presidential Studies Quarterly 26, no. 4 (Fall 1996): 1081-1098.

The author argues that President Ford's appointment of a presidential commission to investigate allegations of abuse against the CIA was a break from the traditional use of such blue-ribbon panels.

Lardner, George, Jr.

1. "Congress Overlooks Oversight: Missing Intelligence Charters." Nation, 2 Sep. 1978, 168-171.

2. "The Intelligence Investigations: Congress Cops Out." The Progressive, Jul. 1976, 13-17.

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