CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

The Early Years

From Creation to 1953

T - Z

 

Works by Arthur B. Darling, Burton Hersh, Ludwell Lee Montague, Evan Thomas, Thomas F. Troy, and Robin W. Winks are presented in separate files under their names.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Ed., Michael Warner. CIA Cold War Records: The CIA Under Harry Truman. Washington, DC: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1994.

MacPherson, I&NS 10.2: "The collection is comprised of 81 documents numbering over 460 pages, most of which could be termed 'sign-posts' in the creation and history of CIA during the formative Truman years.... This edited collection obviously implies ... support for the Montague version of CIA's paternity, but there is no clear resolution of the Darling-Montague debate.... The editor in fact places more emphasis on the influence of the Pearl Harbor experience combined with the rise of a Soviet threat during the birth of modern American intelligence."

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The Creation of the Intelligence Community: Founding Documents, at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/historical-collection-publications/creation-of-ic-founding-documents/index.html.

"These previously declassified and released documents present the thoughtful albeit tortuous and contentious creation of CIA, culminating in the National Security Act of 1947."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Naval Affairs. Unification of the War and Navy Departments and Post-War Organization for National Security: Report to Honorable James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy. 79th Cong., 1st sess., 1945.

This is the Eberstadt Report that Lowenthal calls a "[s]eminal report ... that presaged the National Security Act of 1947."

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Eds., C. Thomas Thorne, Jr., and David S. Patterson. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945-1950 -- Truman Series: Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment. Washington, DC: GPO, 1996.

Clark comment: The FRUS series represents the official documentary record of the major foreign policy decisions and diplomatic activities of the U.S. Government. This volume, compiled retrospectively to the other volumes in the chronological series, is an essential resource for those interested in the beginnings of the American intelligence establishment in the years immediately after World War II. The 419 documents that make up the FRUS volume are available electronically, at: http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/intel/index.html.

"Ancillary or supplementary documents" to the FRUS volume were released in October 1997: For a description of the background to the compilation and issuance of the Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment volume and the additional documents, see: U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, "Background to the Release of Documents on the Origins of the Intelligence Community" (1997) at http://secretary.state.gov/www/briefings/statements/annouce971024a.html.

Nelson, Diplomatic History 22.3, comments that this work "represents a tentative first step toward integrating intelligence activities into the history of American foreign relations." The question of who would control the new intelligence establishment "dominates the memoranda, meeting summaries, and correspondence" included here.

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Foreign Relations, 1945-1950: Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment -- List of Documents. Washington, DC: 1997. [http://secretary.state.gov/www/briefings/statements/doclist971024a.html]

This site provides a list of the 419 documents that make up the FRUS volume. This is an essential resource for those interested in the beginnings of the American intelligence establishment in the years immediately after World War II.

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Eds., Douglas Keane and Michael Warner. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950-1955, The Intelligence Community, 1950-1955. [Available at: http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1950-55Intel]

From "Preface": "This volume is organized along chronological lines in one large chapter covering 1950–1955, and a second chapter that includes the key National Security Council Intelligence Directives of the period.... The intelligence community under President Eisenhower in 1955 was a much more significant player and a more robust bureaucracy than it was under President Truman in the late 1940s. This volume documents that growth and development.... The editors did not seek to document the planning and implementation of specific intelligence operations, or to document the impact of intelligence appraisals upon specific foreign policy decisions or negotiations."

Valero, Larry. "'We Need Our New OSS, Our New General Donovan...': The Public Discourse over American Intelligence, 1944-53." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 91-118.

"The great amount of publicity surrounding American intelligence during the early postwar period clearly illustrates the challenges associated with the practice of intelligence in a democratic society.... Ironically, it was this same public awareness, first initiated by William Donovan, which was such a strong galvinizing force behind the successful effort to establish a postwar intelligence system in the first place."

Warner, Michael. "The CIA's Office of Policy Coordination: From NSC 10/2 to NSC 68." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 211-219.

"OPC grew because State and Defense wanted it to grow. Covert action was viewed by State, by Defense, and, by extension, the Truman administration, as a routine instrument of cold war foreign policy. OPC followed the trajectory plotted by NSC 10/2. The office had built a permanent covert action structure and prepared itself for an expanded cold war mission even before the exigencies of NSC-68 and the Korean War caused it to grow even faster than its creators and administrators had envisioned."

Warner, Michael. "The Creation of the Central Intelligence Group: Salvage and Liquidation." Studies in Intelligence 39, no. 5 (1996): 111-120.

"Thanks in part to [Assistant Secretary of War John J.] McCloy's order to preserve OSS's SI [Secret Intelligence] and X-2 [Counterintelligence] Branches, the 'cloak and dagger' capability ... was waiting in the War Department for transfer to the new CIG."

Warner, Michael. "Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1949-50." Studies in Intelligence 38, no. 5 (1995): 89-98. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/pdf/v38i5a10p.pdf]

The author credits Michael Josselson (and covert CIA funding) with establishing and maintaining this "daring and effective" covert operation. When the Congress convened for the first time, in Berlin on 26 June 1950, the North Koreans had just invaded the South, an event which highlighted that the time had come to choose sides. When the organization was formally established in November 1950, Josselson became the Congress' Administrative Secretary, a post he would hold for the next 16 years.

Warner, Michael. "Prolonged Suspense: The Fortier Board and the Transformation of the Office of Strategic Services." Journal of Intelligence History 2, no. 1 (Summer 2002). [http://www. intelligence-history.org/jih/previous.html]

Abstract: "American intelligence faced major challenges at the end of World War II. Organizations and practices hurriedly established during the war seemed to many Washington decisionmakers to be deficient as bases for peacetime intelligence. In evaluating the remnants of the Office of Strategic Services, Truman administration officials found that the leaders of OSS had developed a sophisticated understanding of how a permanent intelligence service could work. Declassified records of their discussions illuminate that understanding and the ways in which it guided the reform of American intelligence that culminated in the National Security Act of 1947 and the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency."

Warner, Michael, ed. CIA Cold War Records: The CIA Under Harry Truman. Washington, DC: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1994.

MacPherson, I&NS 10.2, notes that this collection "is comprised of 81 documents numbering over 460 pages, most of which could be termed 'sign-posts' in the creation and history of CIA during the formative Truman years.... This edited collection obviously implies ... support for the Montague version of CIA's paternity, but there is no clear resolution of the Darling-Montague debate.... The editor in fact places more emphasis on the influence of the Pearl Harbor experience combined with the rise of a Soviet threat during the birth of modern American intelligence."

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