COUNTERINTELLIGENCE

General

1990s

H - O

Haver, Richard L. "The Ames Case: Catalyst for a National Counterintelligence Strategy." Defense Intelligence Journal 4, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 11-18.

There are "fundamental legal, organizational and managerial weaknesses" plaguing U.S. counterintelligence. These are "the lack of national authority and prestige, an outmoded organizational structure and lack of a unifying strategic concept to help manage and institutionalize inter-agency CI cooperation.... [S]ince Aldrich Ames' arrest, the Executive Branch ... has restructured and resubordinated the inter-agency staff responsible for managing US CI agencies." The National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC), created by Executive Order on 3 May 1994, "coordinates national-level CI activities." NACIC reports to the National Security Council (NSC) through the National Counterintelligence Policy Board (NACIPB), not to the DCI. This and other changes "are steps in the right direction"; but more needs to be done.

Herrington, Stuart A. Traitors among Us: Inside the Spy Catcher's World. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1999.

According to Sullivan, NWCR, Summer 2000, the major focus of this book is the "extremely sensitive counterintelligence operations worldwide" of the Army's elite Foreign Counterintelligence Activity (FCA), based at Fort Meade, Maryland. This "is a fast-paced story of 'teamwork and cooperation between counterintelligence agents of the United States Army, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation,' who 'collaborated closely with German, Swedish, Austrian, and Italian security officials.'"

Heuer, Richards J., Jr. "Nosenko: Five Paths to Judgment." Studies in Intelligence 31, no. 3 (Fall 1987): 71-101. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 379-414. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995. [Available as a 300 kb (vice 2.6 mb thanks to Kathrine M. Graham/NMSU) pdf file at: http://intellit.muskingum.edu/alpha_folder/H_folder/Heuer_on_NosenkoV1.pdf]

From Westerfield's headnote: The Angleton-Golitsin-Nosenko story "has been told many times -- but never, I think, as well as in this meticulous logical and empirical exercise."

Clark comment: Heuer goes beyond a review of the case, presenting "five criteria for making judgments about deception" and describing "how each was applied by different parties to the Nosenko controversy." He also draws conclusions from his discussion of the case. Heuer notes: "I remain firmly opposed to the view that the master plot was an irresponsible, paranoid fantasy. Given the information available at the time,... it would have been irresponsible not to have seriously considered this possibility. The mistake was not in pursuing the master plot theory, but in getting so locked into a position that one was unable to question basic assumptions or note the gradual accumulation of contrary evidence."

For the author (in comment to Clark 4/98), "The long-term value of this article is not what it says about Nosenko or Angleton, but the lessons about how bona fides analysis in general should be done."

Hood, William, James Nolan, and Sam Halpern. Myths Surrounding James Angleton: Lessons for American Counterintelligence. Working Group on Intelligence Reform. Washington, DC: Consortium for the Study of Intelligence, 1993.

Clark comment: Reading this piece together with Cleveland Cram's Of Moles and Molehunters (1993) will not tell readers all they need to know about the disputes surrounding Angleton, but careful perusers will certainly come away with some understanding of the complexities involved.

The reviewer in Surveillant 3.4/5 was quite enthusiastic about this Working Group release: "This ... is an important item.... [It is] delicious 'I-was-there' stuff, with their prejudices -- for 'im or against 'im -- out on the table." Johnson, "Reader's Forum," IJI&C 7.3, asks the questions: Was Angleton right? Was Colby wrong? He answers with a qualified yes to each question. Angleton's firing "was the culmination of a conflict between two opposing operational philosophies that dated from the days of OSS."

Bates, NIPQ 10.2, says that "[a]ll three are supportive of Angleton, but not to the point where they did not see his faults and at times disagree with him.... [T]hey do a remarkable job. If counterintelligence is your bag, this pamphlet is for you.... [It is] pretty obvious that [Cleveland C.] Cram was the first to comment in the discussion period and to attack the whole presentation."

Jelen, George F. "The Defensive Disciplines of Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5, no. 4 (Winter 1991-1992): 381-399.

Kelly, Stephen D. "Neglect and Trendiness." Defense Intelligence Journal 4, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 91-97.

Kornblum, Allan N. The Counterintelligence Game. 2 vols. Washington, DC: Defense Intelligence College, 1993.

Madsen, Wayne. "Intelligence Agency Threats to Computer Security." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 6, no. 4 (Winter 1993): 413-488.

Morse, George P. America Twice Betrayed: Reversing Fifty Years of Government Security Failure. Silver Spring, MD: Bartleby Press, 1995.

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