CANADA

Historical, World War I, and Interwar

1. To World War I

Angevine, Robert G. "Mapping the Northern Frontier: Canada and the Origins of the U.S. Army's Military Information Division, 1885-1898." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 121-145.

The U.S. Army "established its first official peacetime intelligence organization, the Military Information Division (MID), at least in part to collect intelligence enabling it to strike Canada in the event of conflict with Great Britain.... A careful examination of MID's leadership, methods of collecting information, intelligence objectives, organizational structure, and criteria for officer recruitment reveals that mapping the northern frontier and gathering intelligence on Canada were two of its most important activities."

Cole, J.A. Prince of Spies: Henri Le Caron. London: Faber & Faber, 1984.

Chambers: "A mixture of farce and good legwork. Entertaining." See Henri Le Caron [pseud., Thomas Miller Beach], Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service: The Recollections of a Spy (London: Heinemann, 1892; 10th ed. London: EP Publishing, 1974). See also, Peter Edwards, Delusion: The True Story of Victorian Superspy Henri Le Caron (Toronto: Key Porter, 2008).

Canadian Security Intelligence Service. "History" [http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/hstrrtfcts/index-eng.asp]: "Henri Le Caron, born Thomas Miller Beach, was a Civil War veteran recruited by the British in 1867 to spy on the Fenian movement in the United States. Le Caron was arguably one of the most successful covert agents to work for the Canadian government."

Edwards, Peter. Delusion: The True Story of Victorian Superspy Henri Le Caron. Toronto: Key Porter, 2008.

For Peake, Studies 54.1 (Mar. 2010), this work "adds much history of the Fenian movement and its struggles. In addition, [the author] corrects the many embellishments found in Le Caron's 1892 memoir.... Delusion is a well-documented corrective to an intriguing spy story." See Henri Le Caron [pseud., Thomas Miller Beach], Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service: The Recollections of a Spy (London: Heinemann, 1892; 10th ed. London: EP Publishing, 1974). See also, J.A. Cole, Prince of Spies: Henri Le Caron (London: Faber & Faber, 1984).

Canadian Security Intelligence Service. "History" [http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/hstrrtfcts/index-eng.asp]: "Henri Le Caron, born Thomas Miller Beach, was a Civil War veteran recruited by the British in 1867 to spy on the Fenian movement in the United States. Le Caron was arguably one of the most successful covert agents to work for the Canadian government."

Kealey, Gregory S. "The Empire Strikes Back: The 19th Century Origins of the Canadian Secret Services." Journal of the Canadian Historical Association (2000): 1-12.

Keshen, Jeff. "Cloak and Dagger: Canada West's Secret Police, 1864-1867." Ontario History 74, no. 4 (Dec. 1987): 353-387.

Le Caron, Henri [pseud., Thomas Miller Beach]. Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service: The Recollections of a Spy. London: Heinemann, 1892. 10th ed. London: EP Publishing, 1974.

Canadian Security Intelligence Service. "History" [http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/hstrrtfcts/index-eng.asp]: "Henri Le Caron, born Thomas Miller Beach, was a Civil War veteran recruited by the British in 1867 to spy on the Fenian movement in the United States. Le Caron was arguably one of the most successful covert agents to work for the Canadian government." See also, J.A. Cole, Prince of Spies: Henri Le Caron (London: Faber & Faber, 1984); and Peter Edwards, Delusion: The True Story of Victorian Superspy Henri Le Caron (Toronto: Key Porter, 2008).

MacDonald, Cheryl. "Canada's Secret Police? Gilbert McMicken, Spymaster." Beaver 71, no. 3 (1991): 44-49.

Calder: "McMicken was the first chief of Canadian intelligence around the time of the American civil war."

MacLeod, D. Peter. "Treason at Quebec: British Espionage in Canada During the Winter of 1759-1760." Canadian Military History 2, no. 1 (1993): 49-62.

Calder: "Discusses a spy network ... that supplied the British with intelligence on the French military."

2. World War I and Interwar

Hahn, James E. The Intelligence Service within the Canadian Corps, 1914- 1918. Toronto: Macmillan, 1930.

Jenkins, Dan. "The Other Side of the Hill: Combat Intelligence in the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918." Canadian Military History 10, no. 2 (2001): 7-26.

Kealey, Gregory S.

1. "Spymasters, Spies, and Their Subjects: The RCMP and Canadian State Repression, 1914-1939." In Whose National Security? Canadian State Surveillance and the Creation of Enemies, eds. Gary Kinsman, Dieter Buse, and Mercedes Streedman, 18-33. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2000.

2. "The Surveillance State: The Origins of Domestic Intelligence and Counter-Subversion in Canada, 1914-21." Intelligence and National Security 7, no. 3 (Jul. 1992): 179-210.

Kitchen, Martin. "The German Invasion of Canada in the First World War." The International History Review 7, no. 2 (May 1985): 245-260.

Perras, Galen Roger. "Covert Canucks: Intelligence Gathering and the 1924 Voyage of HMCS Thiepval in the North Pacific Ocean." Journal of Strategic Studies 28, no. 3 (Jun. 2005): 505-528.

From abstract: "In 1924, HMCS Thiepval provided logistical support to a British attempt to circumnavigate the world by air. But the ship had another secret mission. Concerned America and Japan were fortifying their north Pacific possessions in violation of the 1922 Washington Treaty, and fearing war might be inevitable, the Canadian navy sent the Thiepval to covertly spy upon American and Japanese facilities."

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