Spy Cases

Other

Included here:

1. E. Herbert Norman

2. Other and General

3. Russian Illegal (2006)

 

1. E. Herbert Norman

E. Herbert Norman was a Canadian diplomat who committed suicide in 1957, after he had come under suspicion of espionage.

Barros, James. No Sense of Evil: The Espionage Case of E. Herbert Norman. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986. New York: Ivy Books, 1987.

Stafford, I&NS 3.1, suggests that Barros' indictment of Norman as a Soviet spy fails for lack of evidence.

Bowen, Roger. Innocence Is Not Enough: The Life and Death of Herbert Norman. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 1986. Topsfield, MA: Salem House, 1986.

For Stafford, I&NS 3.1, "Bowen's book ... reads too much like an apologia to provide the definitive biography it seeks to be." Nonetheless, despite its faults, "not the least of which is a certain consistent naivety," the book "helps us understand the man and his times."

Peake, Hayden B. "A Question of Evidence: The Peyton Lyon Report." Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 9, no. 3 (1990): 1-2, 8-11.

Discusses a Canadian Government report on the Norman case.

Whitaker, Reg. "Return to the Crucible: The Persecution of Herbert Norman." Canadian Forum, Nov. 1986, 11-28.

Whitaker, Reg. "Spies Who Might Have Been: Canada and the Myth of Cold War Counterintelligence." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 4 (Oct. 1997): 25-43.

Whitaker argues that, during the Cold War, Western, and specifically Canadian, counterintelligence "derived its dominant notions of the nature of the intelligence threat ... from the same ideological assumptions that underlay the Cold War itself." Using this model of the ideologically motivated traitor as a methodology to identify potential spies "focused attention away from betrayals based on non-ideological motives and sent counterintelligence experts chasing after mythical hares." Based on this viewpoint, the author examines the accusations leveled against Herbert Norman and Leslie James Bennett.

Clark comment: This reader might be more sympathetic to the author's arguments here and elsewhere in his extensive list of work on Canadian internal security if Whitaker showed any understanding that a Soviet threat, generally, and a Soviet espionage threat, specifically, actually existed. The internal security and counterespionage actions taken by Western countries, including Canada, certainly leave plenty of room for criticism and discussion; but decisions made and actions taken should be put within a more balanced context than Whitaker supplies.

Whitaker, Reg, and Gary Marcuse. Cold War Canada: The Making of a National Insecurity State, 1945-1957. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

2. Other and General

Beeby, Dean. Cargo of Lies: The True Story of a Nazi Double Agent in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

According to Hoffman, WIR 15.3, Beeby tells the story of the relationship between the RCMP's security service and Werner Alfred Waldemar von Janowski. The Nazi agent landed in Canada from a U-boat in November 1942, and less than 12 hours later he was in custody. The RCMP sought to run Janowski as a counterintelligence double agent; and, as told by the author, showed little flair for these kinds of complicated operations. The reviewer says that "Beeby exhibits a deft touch in his telling of the story, playing it out with suspense worthy of a novel."

Booknews, 1 Jun. 1996, reports that the author "argues that the Canadian authorities were woefully unprepared for coping with a serious spy and that their mishandling of the case had long-term consequences that affected relations with their intelligence partners in the Cold War."

Callwood, June. Emma: The True Story of Canada's Unlikely Spy. Toronto: General Books, 1985. Emma: A True Story of Treason. New York: Beaufort, 1985.

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Canada: A Glimpse Into the World of Spies." Aug. 1996. [http://www.nacic.gov]

"Newly released court documents show that Canada's spy-catchers believe a Toronto man and woman recently deported from Canada are members of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). The pair gained 'access to persons and information of interest to the SVR' by assuming false identities, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) said in a court submission made public."

Stéphane Lefebvre, "Russian Intelligence Activities in Canada: The Latest Case of an 'Illegal,'" Journal of Slavic Military Studies 20, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 2007): 555-556, citing [footnote 18] Paul Koring and Jeff Sallot, "Ottawa Races to Deport Russian Spies," Globe and Mail (Toronto), 29 May 1996, A4, and Fred Weir, "Alleged Spies Whisked Off Aeroflot Plane," Winnipeg Free Press, 12 Jun. 1996, B6. In May 1996, adds that the Solicitor General of Canada and the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration "signed security certificates leading to the detention of persons alleging to be 'Ian Mackenzie Lambert' and 'Laurie Catherine Mary Lambert.' They were in fact married, but separated, SVR illegals using the names of deceased Canadian infants and whose real name[s] were Dmitry Vladimirovich Olshevskiy and Yelena Borisovna Olshevskaya.... They were deported to Russia within a month."

Granatstein, J.L., and David Stafford. Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost. Toronto: Key Porter, 1990.

Heaps, Leo. Thirty Years with the KGB: The Double Life of Hugh Hambleton. London: Methuen, 1984. Hugh Hambleton, Spy: Thirty Years with the KGB. Toronto and London: Methuen, 1985. [pb]

Milivojevic, I&NS 2.2, finds this to be a "convincing account of how Hambleton was recruited and controlled over a long period of time." Hambleton, a Canadian citizen, spent 10 years in a British prison after his trial in 1982 for espionage in NATO in the 1950s.

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. "The Montreal Spy Ring of 1898 and the Origins of 'Domestic Surveillance' in the United States." Canadian Review of American Studies 5 (Fall 1974): 119-134.

Levy, David.

1. "The Sad Tale of Fred Rose, Stalin's Man in the True North." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 350-366.

Rose was a Canadian Member of Parliament when he was uncovered as a Soviet spy by Igor Gouzenko.

2. Stalin's Man in Canada: Fred Rose and Soviet Espionage. New York: Enigma, 2011.

Peake, Studies 56.3 (Sep 2012) and Intelligencer 19.3 (Winter-Spring 2013), calls this work "well documented and a useful contribution to the literature of espionage."

Newman, Bernard C. The Red Spider Web: The Story of Russian Spying in Canada. London: Latimer House, 1947. [Wilcox]

Van Seters, Deborah. "The Munsinger Affair: Images of Espionage and Security in 1960s Canada." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 71-84.

The so-called "Munsinger Affair" of 1966 was not really a spy case; but, as the author points out, it was treated at the time by some, specifically the RCMP, as a potential sex-spy matter -- that is, a sex-spy-scandal waiting to happen or a might-have-been event. The author uses the Munsinger affair "as a means for exploring the range of contemporary [i.e., contemporaneous] Canadian attitudes concerning the nature of security threats to Canada and the proper role of government in protecting Canadian security."

Whitaker, Reg. "Spies Who Might Have Been: Canada and the Myth of Cold War Counterintelligence." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 4 (Oct. 1997): 25-43.

Whitaker argues that, during the Cold War, Western, and specifically Canadian, counterintelligence "derived its dominant notions of the nature of the intelligence threat ... from the same ideological assumptions that underlay the Cold War itself." Using this model of the ideologically motivated traitor as a methodology to identify potential spies "focused attention away from betrayals based on non-ideological motives and sent counterintelligence experts chasing after mythical hares." Based on this viewpoint, the author examines the accusations leveled against Herbert Norman and Leslie James Bennett.

Clark comment: This reader might be more sympathetic to the author's arguments here and elsewhere in his extensive list of work on Canadian internal security if Whitaker showed any understanding that a Soviet threat, generally, and a Soviet espionage threat, specifically, actually existed. The internal security and counterespionage actions taken by Western countries, including Canada, certainly leave plenty of room for criticism and discussion; but decisions made and actions taken should be put within a more balanced context than Whitaker supplies.

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