CANADA

General Post-World War II

To 1989

S - Z

Sallot, Jeff. Nobody Said No: The Real Story about How the Mounties Always Get Their Man. Toronto: Lorimer, 1979.

Sawatsky, John.

1. For Services Rendered: Leslie James Bennett and the RCMP Security Service. New York and Toronto: Doubleday, 1982.

2. Men in the Shadows: The RCMP Security Service. Toronto & New York: Doubleday, 1980.

Starnes, John.

John Starnes died on 23 December at the age of 96. Ian Macleod, "Spymaster, Diplomat Was at Centre of Cold War Intrigue," Leader-Post (Regina), 13 Jan. 2015.

1. "Canadian Internal Security: The Need for a New Approach, A New Organization." Canadian Defence Quarterly 9, no. 1 (Summer 1979): 21-26.

2. "A Canadian Secret Intelligence Service?" International Perspective (Jul.-Aug. 1987): 6-9.

3. "Canadian Security." International Perspective (Sep.-Oct. 1984): 23-26.

4. Closely Guarded: A Life in Canadian Security and Intelligence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

According to the CASIS Intelligence Newsletter, Fall 1998, Starnes served as "Canadian ambassador in Germany and Egypt, chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee, and the first civilian Director-General of the RCMP Security Service." Granatstein, Choice, Apr. 1999, comments that "[u]fortunately,... Starnes is very discreet. There are tantilizing details, but much is left unexplained or unexplored, and the result is ultimately unsatisfying."

A reviewer for the Virginia Quarterly Review 75.2, finds it unfortunate the "book focuses on the minutiae of the author's career (transfers, promotions, luncheons, holidays...)." Although Closely Guarded sheds "light on the little-known world of the Canadian intelligence community..., it is not a particularly lively read."

5. "Review Versus Oversight." In Security and Intelligence in a Changing World: New Perspectives for the 1990s, eds. Stuart Farson, David Stafford, and Wesley K. Wark, 95-103. London: Frank Cass, 1991.

6. "Terrorism and the Canadian Intelligence Security Service." In Terror, ed. Brian MacDonald, 137-144. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies, 1986.

Wark, Wesley K.

1. "From Frontier to Foreign Intelligence: The Evolution of Military Intelligence in Canada." Armed Forces and Society 16, no. 1 (Fall 1989): 77-98.

2. "Security Intelligence in Canada, 1864-1945: The History of a 'National Insecurity State.'" In Go Spy the Land: Military Intelligence in History, eds. Keith Neilson and B.J.C. McKercher, 153-178. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.

Weinstein, Harvey M. Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control. [US]: American Psychiatric Press, 1990.

Weller, Geoffrey R.

1. "Accountability in Canadian Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 3 (Fall 1988): 414-441.

2. "The Canadian Security Intelligence Service Under Stress." Canadian Public Administration 31, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 279-302.

Whitaker, Reg.

1. "Access to Information and Research on Security and Intelligence: The Canadian Situation." In National Security: Surveillance and Accountability in a Democratic Society, eds. Peter Hanks and John D. McCamus, 183-196. Cowansville, Quebec: Les Editions Yvon Blais, 1989.

2. "Apprehended Insurrection? RCMP Intelligence and the Oct. Crisis." Queen's Quarterly 100, no. 2 (1993): 383-406.

3. "Canada: The RCMP Scandals." In Politics of Scandal: Power and Process in Liberal Democracies, eds. Andrei S. Markovits and Mark Silverstein, 38-61. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988.

4. "Cold War Alchemy: How America, Britain and Canada Transformed Espionage into Subversion." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 177-210.

Abstract: "At the outset of the Cold War, a series of high-level Soviet espionage scandals unfolded in the English-speaking countries. These cases had a very significant impact in shaping the dominant counter-espionage model in the West."

5. "Fighting the Cold War on the Home Front: America, Britain, Australia and Canada." In The Uses of Anti-Communism, eds. Ralph Miliband, et al, 23-67. London: Merlin, 1984.

6. "The Origins of the Canadian Government's Internal Security System, 1945-1952." Canadian Historical Review 65, no. 2 (Jun. 1984): 154-183.

7. "The Politics of Security Intelligence Policy-Making in Canada: I, 1970-1984." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 4 (Oct. 1991): 649-668.

Whitaker begins his study with the publication in 1969 of the report of the Mackenzie Royal Commission on Security and ends with the passage of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) Act of 1984. The focus is on the establishment of political accountability for the Canadian security intelligence entities, particularly in view of what the author calls the "domestication" of the security problem in the 1970s.

8. "The Politics of Security Intelligence Policy-Making in Canada: II, 1984-91." Intelligence and National Security 7, no. 2 (Apr. 1992): 53-76.

The author picks up his story with the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) Act of 1984. The Act's "elements of formal accountability go a long way to moving security intelligence policy and administration in Canada sharply away from the British model and strikingly closer to the American model." Nevertheless, the rejection of the idea of a parliamentary oversight committee and the adoption of the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC) and the office of Inspector General gives CSIS oversight a distinctly Canadian flavor.

As a Postscript, Whitaker mentions the establishment of a parliamentary subcommittee on national security in June 1991, which "will perhaps enhance the public accountability features of the Canadian system."

9. "Witchhunt in the Civil Service: Ottawa's New Security Force Has Taken the Role of an Orwellian-style Thought Police." This Magazine 20, no. 4 (Oct.-Nov. 1986): 24-30.

Whitaker, Reg, and Gary Marcuse. Cold War Canada: The Making of a National Insecurity State, 1945-1957. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

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