Anderson, Scott. "The Evolution of the Canadian Intelligence Establishment, 1945-1950." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 3 (Jul. 1994): 448-471.
Anderson finds the roots of Canada's intelligence community in the lessons of World War II, rather than in the Cold War. He describes simultaneous trends of cooperation with Britain and the United States and a seeking of independence. Anderson suggests that the Gouzenko defection may have shortcircuited a national intelligence organization along U.S. lines. "With attention focused on internal security and signals intelligence, Canada's strategic intelligence component was slow to develop.... [T]he Canadian intelligence establishment evolved in response to the stimulus of the Cold War, while the directions taken were determined by historical experience."
Aronsen, Lawrence R.
1. American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Toronto and Westport, CT: Greenwood/Praeger, 1997.
From publisher: The author "draws on recently declassified documents in Ottawa and Washington to provide a reassessment of Canada's special relationship with the U.S.... [D]etailed new information is provided about Canada's contribution to the creation of the postwar economic order from the Bretton Woods Agreement to GATT."
2. "America's National Security and the Defence of the Northern Frontier, 1945-51." Canadian Review of American Studies 14 (1983): 259-277.
3. "'Peace, Order and Good Government' during the Cold War: The Origins and Organization of Canada's Internal Security Program." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 3 (Sep. 1986): 357-380.
After surveying the origins and organization of Canada's internal security bureaucracy, the author concludes that (and seeks to explain why) "the government acted with caution and moderation" during the early Cold War period (1945-1950).
4. "Preparing for Armageddon: JIC 1 (Final) and the Soviet Attack on Canada." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 490-510.
From 1945 to 1947, "the Canadian Joint Intelligence Committee prepared JIC 1 (Final), a report on when, where, and in what capacity the Soviet Union would strike Canada in the event of the next world war.... The report was completed and approved by Canadian and American defence officials in 1947 and updated versions became the basis for continental defence planning until the signing of the 1957 Norad agreement."
5.and Martin Kitchen. The Origins of the Cold War in Comparative Perspective: Canadian, American and British Relations with Soviet Union, 1941-1948. London and Toronto: St. Martin's, 1998.
Atkey, Ronald G. "Accountability for Security Intelligence Activity in Canada: The New Structure." In National Security: Surveillance and Accountability in a Democratic Society, eds. Peter Hanks and John D. McCamus, 37-42. Cowansville, Quebec: Les Editions Yvon Blais, 1989.
Blais, J.J. "The Political Accountability of Intelligence Agencies -- Canada." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1989): 108-118.
The author, a "senior member" of Canada's Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC), believes that the mechanisms established in 1984 with the Security Intelligence Service Act have worked well.
1. The Big Chill: Canada and the Cold War. Contemporary Affairs No.1. Toronto: Canadian Institute for International Affairs, 1998.
2. "The Cold War and the Curate's Egg: When did Canada's Cold War Really Begin?" International Journal 53, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 407-418.
Brown, Lorne, and Caroline Brown. An Unauthorized History of the RCMP. Toronto: James Lorrimer, 1978.
Canada. Commission of Inquiry Concerning Certain Activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. First Report: Security and Information. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, 1979. Second Report: Freedom and Security Under the Law. 2 vols. 1981. Third Report: Certain R.C.M.P. Activities and the Question of Governmental Knowledge. 1981.
Reports of the McDonald Commission.
Canada. Royal Commission on Security. Report of the Royal Commission on Security (Abridged). Ottawa: The Queen's Printer, 1969.
Pforzheimer: This report was "abridged for security reasons but is still ... worthwhile."
Charters, David A.
1. "From October to Oka: Peacekeeping in Canada, 1970-1990." In Canadian Military History: Selected Readings, ed. Marc Milner, 368-393. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1993.
2. "Sir Maurice Oldfield and British Intelligence: Some Lessons for Canada." Conflict Quarterly 2, no. 3 (Winter 1982): 40-51.
Chung, Daniel Cayley. "Internal Security: Establishment of a Canadian Security Intelligence Service." Harvard International Law Journal 26 (1985): 234-249.
Cleroux, Richard. Official Secrets: The Story Behind the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Montreal: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1990. Official Secrets: The Inside Story of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991. [pb]
Clark comment: To a non-specialist in Canadian intelligence affairs, the biggest problem with Cleroux' work is his overstating of the American influence in the relationship between the CSIS and the American intelligence agencies. It has been my impression that the Canadian service has been, if anything, on the overall plus side of the ledger in terms of what it receives from the relationship.
Surveillant 2.2 notes that here a Canadian journalist "describes the beginnings of CSIS -- its successes and failures ... [and] turf wars with the RCMP." According to NameBase, "[t]his well-balanced account covers the history of RCMP, the bureaucratic turf wars that resulted from the creation of CSIS, and the concerns over CSIS's mandate as seen by Canada's civil libertarians." Whitaker, I&NS 7.2, is turned off by the "hectoring, mean-spirited tone" adopted by Cleroux. As a reporter, the author is "energetic, inquisitive and reasonably careful"; however, his "cynical stance ... leaves his readers with no clear sense of direction."
Collins, Anne. In the Sleep Room: The Story of the CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1988.
In a review in I&NS 5.1, Whitaker seems to take Collins' book at face value, calling it "a very accomplished piece of work." The reviewer does note that much of the story of Canadian psychiatrist Ewan Cameron "has already been told" in John Marks' Search for the "Manchurian Candidate" (1979). Clark comment: I would add that if this particular instance of bureaucratic paranoia interests you, Marks' book is better done if only because it lacks Collins' lament of jingoistic outrage.
Douglas, W.A.B., ed. The RCN in Transition, 1910-1985. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988.
Dubro, James, and Robin Rowland. Undercover: Cases of the RCMP's Most Secret Operative. Markham, Ontario: Octopus Publishing, 1991.
According to Hannant, I&NS 9.1, "Frank Zaneth was the first officer recruited by the RCMP to be a secret undercover operative." From the end of World War I into the 1940s, Zaneth worked first against the political left/labor, and after being compromised in that work moved into criminal undercover work. The book "bogs down occasionally in unimportant detail." Nevertheless, it is a "fascinating inside look at the RCMP during the first two decades of its security intelligence operation, revealing the extent to which criminal and political policing overlapped and the extent to which partisan political decisions guided the force and its actions."
Edwards, John Ll. J. "The Canadian Security Intelligence Act 1984: A Canadian Appraisal," Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 5, no. 1 (Spring, 1985): 143-150.
Elliot, Stuart R.
1. "The Canadian Intelligence Corps." Canadian Army Journal 17 (Apr. 1963): 122-127.
2. Scarlet to Green: A History of Intelligence in the Canadian Army , 1903-1963. Ottawa: Canadian Intelligence and Security Association, 1981. Scarlet to Green: Canadian Army Intelligence, 1903- 1963. Toronto: Hunter Rose, 1981.
Sexton refers to Scarlet to Green as a "[s]emi-official history of the Canadian Intelligence Corps from establishment of the Corps of Guides to unification of the Canadian forces."
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