AUSTRALIA

General

A - G

Aarons, Mark. Sanctuary: Nazi Fugitives in Australia. Melbourne: Heinemann, 1989.

Andrew, Christopher. "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 1 (Apr. 1989): 213-256.

Australia, Commonwealth of. Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security. Report. Canberra: Australian Government Publications Service, 1977.

Ball, Desmond J. Australia's Secret Space Programs. Canberra: Australian National University, 1988.

According to Cain, I&NS 6.1, Ball's brief (86 pages) monograph describes the establishment of the Australian satellite communications intercept site at Kojarena, near Geraldton, Western Australia. From the site, the Australian DSD can monitor at least 65 satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Cain notes that Australia also maintains satellite intercept facilities at Shoalhaven, near Darwin, and at Watsonia Barracks, Melbourne.

Ball, Desmond J. A Base for Debate: The US Satellite Station at Nurrungar. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1987.

Cain, I&NS 6.1, notes that the U.S. Air Force base at Nurrungar, some 500 miles northeast of Adelaide, differs from the CIA base at Pine Gap in that Nurrungar is "fundamentally ... part of the US defence system and forms an internal element of the US C3I system... Ball argues that Australia obtains no benefit from the Nurrungar base and that the disadvantages of it probably outweigh the advantages."

Ball, Desmond J. Pine Gap: Australia and the U.S. Geostationary Signals Intelligence Satellite Program. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 1988. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988.

Cain, I&NS 6.1, says that Pine Gap "brings up to date the functions and purpose" of what Ball "declares to be the CIA's most important COMINT spy base outside the USA."

Ball, Desmond J. A Suitable Piece of Real Estate: American Intelligence in Australia. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger, 1980.

The focus here is on the U.S. satellite ground stations in Australia.

Ball, Desmond J. The Use of the Soviet Embassy in Canberra for Signals Intelligence (Sigint) Collection. Working Paper No. 134, Strategy and Defence Studies Centre. Canberra: Australian National University, 1987.

Barnett, Harvey. "Moles Under Every Bed, or History's Greatest Hoax." Pacific Defense Reporter 13 (Mar. 1987): 7-8. [Petersen]

Barnett, Harvey. Tale of the Scorpion. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1988. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1988.

Buhl, Peter. "Australia's Role in US Intelligence Gathering." Jane's Defense Weekly, 21 Oct. 1989, 860-861.

Cain, Frank.

Deery, Phillip. "Covert Propaganda and the Cold War: Britain and Australia, 1948-1955." The Round Table 361 (2001): 607-621.

Deery, Phillip. "A Double Agent Down Under: Australian Security and the Infiltration of the Left." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 3 (Jun. 2007): 346-366.

The focus here is on the work of Maximilian Wechsler as a penetration agent for ASIO from 1972 to 1975. His target groups were the Communist Party of Australia and the Socialist Workers' League.

Deery, Phillip. "Menzies, Macmillan and the 'Woomera Spy Case' of 1958." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 23-38.

"The Woomera episode ... highlighted the readiness of Australia and Britain to collude so that American nerves, if aroused, could be calmed."

Deery, Phillip. "Science, Security and the Cold War: An Australian Dimension." War & Society 17, no. 1 (1999): 81-99.

Grey, Anthony. The Prime Minister Was a Spy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1983.

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