Maher, William. 2"Parliament Passes ASIO Bill." Australian Consolidated Press, 26 Nov. 1999. [http://newswire.com.au]
On 25 November 1999, the Australian Parliament passed the ASIO Amendment Bill 1999, which allows ASIO "to tap into and alter data on private computer systems.... This is the first time in 13 years a major change has been made to the ASIO Act 1979."
Martin, Geoffrey Lee. "Spying Agency in the Red." Telegraph (London), 17 May 1996. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]
ASIO "has had to cut back on routine spying after ending up £2 million in the red this year."
McKnight, David. Australia's Spies and Their Secrets. London: UCL Press, 1994. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1994. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1995. [pb]
Unsinger, IJI&C 9.4, opines that this study of ASIO "hurts the chances for a good study" of the agency to appear. The reviewer has trouble with the author's extensive use of "unnamed sources," other aspects of his sourcing, and his polemical approach. On the other hand, Gill, I&NS 11.4, calls the book an "excellent survey" of ASIO's history. However, "it is frustrating that the author has not provided a fuller analysis of the Hope reports and their impact."
McLennan, A.D. "National Intelligence Assessment: Australia's Experience." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1995): 72- 91.
The focus here is on the Office of National Assessment (ONA), which the author views as a hybrid. Functionally, it is similar to the American central intelligence arrangement, but constitutionally it operates within a system more like the British which embeds the executive in Parliament. In essence, ONA reflects the environment in which it developed.
Mitchell, Ben. "Aspiring to Spy? No Dry Martinis or Sports Car Required." The Age (Melbourne), 19 Aug. 1997. [http://www.theage.com.au]
The Australian Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) is "advertising for spies" [this phraseology shows that it is not just American journalists who fail to understand even elemental intelligence terminology]. DSD is hiring people who can decipher encrypted cables, translate foreign languages, and analyze international telecommunications.
Pfennigwerth, Ian. A Man of Intelligence: The Life of Captain Theodore Eric Nave, Australian Codebreaker Extraordinary. NSW, Australia: Rosenberg Publishing, 2006.
According to Kruh, Cryptologia 30.4 (Oct. 2006), Neve's skills gained him "widespread respect and admiration within the closed confines of Allied codebreaking before, during, and after World War Two." Peake, Studies 52.2 (Jun. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), comments that "conspiracy devotees" will ignore this book, because the author shows that the critical parts of Rusbridger and Nave's Betrayal at Pearl Harbor (1991) were written without Nave's involvement. The biography will, however, be "accepted with gratitude by intelligence historians and clear-thinking readers."
Smith, Leef. "Australian Aide Under Probe Dead in Apparent Suicide." Washington Post, 17 Jun. 1999, B2.
Mervyn Jenkins, "[a] senior Australian Defense Intelligence official who was under investigation for mishandling documents[,] was found dead [on 12 June 1999] at his Arlington home, the victim of an apparent suicide."
Stewart, Cameron. "Our UN Team Used as Spies." The Australian, 28 Jan 1999. [http://www.theaustralian.com.au]
Scott Ritter, "an American and former senior UNSCOM inspector, said four of the Australians under his command in Iraq expressed fears last August that the US was using UNSCOM's intelligence information for its own purposes.... Ritter said one Australian military officer was used by UNSCOM specifically for the purposes of installing sensitive electronic surveillance equipment targeted at uncovering information about Iraq's weapons programs."
The head of UNSCOM, Australian Richard Butler "strongly denied that the Australian inspectors or anyone in UNSCOM had worked on behalf of the US and he said that the Australians were merely carrying out the UN Security Council's mandate to hunt down [Iraqi President Saddam] Hussein's illegal weapons."
Weller, Geoffrey R.
1. "Comparing Western Inspectors General of Intelligence and Security." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 4 (Winter 1996-1997): 383-406.
Statutory Inspectors General and or similar have been created in the Western democracies over the past 15 years as part of an "overall increase in the degree of oversight accorded intelligence agencies.... The Inspectors General have generally built up good reputations for their largely well done ... work." But "the IGs have not always been able to anticipate problems and give early warning."
2. "The Internal Modernization of Western Intelligence Agencies." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 299-322.
The author surveys post-Cold War changes that have affected the internal workings of the civilian intelligence agencies of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. He touches on recruitment policies, increasing representativeness, personnel policies, management practices, and physical modernization.
3. "Oversight of Australia's Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 484-503.
Intelligence "agencies should not be so hamstrung that they cannot properly do what they are mandated to do. Yet, their political masters and the general public need sufficient assurances that these agencies will not become inefficient or threats to the political system itself. Australia has made attempts, especially in recent years, to achieve this balance.... But the success of these attempts to find necessary balance in Australia is open to some question."
Yiacoumi, Roulla. "Hidden Report Reveals Crypto Paranoia." Australian Consolidated Press, 13 Jan. 1999. [http://newswire.com.au]
A copy of the report, Review of Policy Relating to Encryption Technologies, written by former ASIO deputy director-general Gerard Walsh in 1996 but withdrawn from public sale three weeks after it was released, has been found in the Hobart State Library by a university student. It is available on the web site of the civil liberties group Electronic Frontiers Australia.
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