AUSTRALIA

2000s

Generally

Materials arranged chronologically.

Sydney Morning Herald. "How Menzies Covered Up Spy Scandal." 21 Jan. 2000. [http://www.smh.com.au]

According to files released to the UK Public Record Office, former Australian prime minister Robert Menzies and UK prime minister Harold Macmillan "secretly colluded to cover up an embarrassing spy scandal.... [They] were terrified the Americans would discover an RAF trainee [named only as Brown in the files] had sold secrets to the communists from guided missile trials being carried out by the two countries in Woomera, South Australia." See also, Penelope Debelle, "Murdoch's Cover-Up Role In Spy Scandal," Sydney Morning Herald, 22 Jan. 2000.

Lague, David. "Our Spies Will Soon Have to Emerge from the Shadows." Sydney Morning Herald, 16 Mar. 2000. [http://www.smh.com.au]

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade has coordinated the drafting of legislation that would make the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) "accountable to Parliament while maintaining sufficient secrecy to give it the freedom of action its managers desire.... Australia's spy service has traditionally operated within the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade without any legal basis for its existence."

Hartcher, Peter. "KGB Spy Still at Large after Infiltrating ASIO." Australian Financial Review, 29 Jun. 2000. [http://afr.com.au]

According to materials provided by former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin, who defected to Britain in 1992, a KGB agent penetrated the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), remained "undetected for a decade[,] and is still living in Australia. The agent ... rose to a senior position.... Officials said he was not prosecuted because of a lack of evidence."

Ball, Desmond J. "Silent Witness: Australian Intelligence and East Timor." Pacific Review 114, no. 1 (2001): 35-62.

Chulov, Martin. "Psssst, Want To Be a Spy?" The Australian, 5 Mar. 2001. [http:// theaustralian.com.au]

The Australian intelligence services are for the first time openly advertising for recruits.

The Age (Melbourne). "Editorial Opinion: Secret Intelligence? Can't Say Too Much." 5 Jul. 2001. [http://www.theage.com.au]

The "immunity provisions" of the "Intelligence Services Bill now before Federal Parliament ... are a profoundly disturbing aspect of a bill that is in other respects a reasonable response to the recommendations of the 1995 commission of inquiry into the intelligence service." ASIS and the Defence Signals Directorate "will be on a statutory footing for the first time, and ASIS will come under the scrutiny of a parliamentary committee, as is already the case with ... ASIO. Greater accountability in intelligence gathering is desirable; the worry is that this bill's immunity provisions will undermine accountability, not enhance it."

Wilkinson, Marian. "Spy Stations Key to Australian Role." Sydney Morning Herald, 26 Sep. 2001, 3. [http://www.smh.com.au]

Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO). Report to Parliament 2001-2002. Canberra: 23 Sep. 2002.

Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. "Submission by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation to the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee inquiry into the performance of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and other relevant agencies of the Commonwealth Government in the assessment and dissemination of threats to the security of Australians in Southeast Asia in the period 11 September 2001 to 12 October 2002." Canberra: 6 Jun. 2003.

Grono, Nicholas. "Australia's Response to Terrorism: Strengthening the Global Intelligence Network." Studies in Intelligence 48, no. 1 (2004): 27-38.

"Canberra's process of adjusting its intelligence to meet the challenges of global terrorism,... started more than two years before the September 11 attacks..., in preparation of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. After September 11, the Australian government further strengthened its intelligence capabilities through legislative and funding adjustments."

Wilkie, Andrew. Axis of Deceit: The Story of the Intelligence Officer Who Risked All to Tell the Truth about WMD and Iraq. Melbourne: Black, 2004.

According to Cain, JIH 4.2, the author resigned from Australia's Office of National Assessments (ONA) "in a blaze of publicity in protest at the decision of the Liberal Party-led government ... to join the invasion of Iraq in March 2003." Wilkie maintains that he "realised that the many documents and reports he had handled in ONA were being misused by the government to justify a war."

United Press International. "Australia Beefs Up Counterterrorism Agency." Washington Times, 16 Oct. 2005. [http://www.washingtontimes.com]

On 16 October 2005, The Age newspaper reported that "Australia will double the size" of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIO) "over the next five years to combat the threat of home-grown terrorists.... Attorney General Philip Ruddock said the increase had been recommended in a confidential review" by former ASIO head Allan Taylor.

"Vulture." "Vulture's Row: Aussie Eyes Are Smiling." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 22, no. 1 (Jan. 2006): 16.

Australian Prime Minister Howard had concluded a new agreement with the United States on intelligence sharing. The "arrangement reportedly grants Canberra access to all levels of raw US intelligence, assessments and real-time operational information for planning." [emphasis in original]

Koc-Menard, Sergio. "Australia's Intelligence and Passenger Assessment Programs." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 218-236.

The author discusses Australia's Advanced Passenger Processing (APP) System. The system allows air carriers to conduct pre-boarding passenger screening at overseas locations.

Reuters. "Australia Doubles Its Spy Numbers Since 2001." 27 Dec. 2006. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to an Australian daily on 28 December 2006, an "influx of Chinese spies has forced" the ASIO "into a recruiting drive to counter the threat" and "that posed by Muslim extremists.... Attorney General Philip Ruddock ... said ASIO had been on a major recruitment drive since the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States." Ruddock said ASIO has expanded its staffing to 1,200, "double the number it had at 2001." The newspaper "said around 88 linguists had been employed since 2004 under the recruitment drive which plans to see ASIO grow to more than 1,800 by 2011." It also reported that ASIO "was having less success recruiting fluent Arabic speakers, with fewer than a dozen working inside security and intelligence agencies."

Associated Press. "Judge Criticizes Australian Spy Agency." 12 Nov. 2007. [http://www.ap.org]

On 12 November 2007, New South Wales state Supreme Court judge Michael Adams accused ASIO "of falsely imprisoning a Pakistani-born Australian citizen who faced terrorism-related charges that were later dropped."

Hyland, Tom. "Money for Nothing and Your Clicks for Free." Sunday Age (Melbourne), 2 Mar. 2008. [http://www.theage.com.au]

"Our spies are clinging to Cold War culture, ignoring freely available sources of intelligence such as the internet."

Pfiffner, James P., and Mark Phythian, eds. Intelligence and National Security Policymaking on Iraq: British and American Perspectives. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2008.

Peake, Studies 54.1 (Mar. 2010), finds that this is an "uncommonly fine selection of 13 articles and supporting documents dealing with the key issues and personalities involved.... The tone of the book is positive, which is not to say that one will agree with every assertion." The book's subtitle is misleading, since it does not mention "the Australian experience that is nicely formulated in a chapter by Professor Rodney Tiffen of the University of Sydney. But overall, this is an excellent book that analyzes, objectively and dispassionately, some of the worst experiences of intelligence professionals and decision makers."

United Press International. "Five Convicted of Terror Plot in Australia." 16 Oct. 2009. [http://www.upi.com]

According to prosecutors, a jury has convicted "five Muslim men on charges of conspiring to plan a terrorist attack." The Crown Prosecutor "said police found instructions for building bombs in their homes along with literature, videos and CDs glorifying the terrorist acts of Osama bin Laden and al-Qaida. Police also found high-powered guns and mobile phones set up with fake names which were used to place bulk orders for bomb-making chemicals."

McLennan, David. "Foreign Spies Hack into Government." Canberra Times, 28 Oct. 2009. [http://www.canberratimes.com.au]

According to ASIO director-general David Irvine's annual report, "internet-enabled espionage was a rapidly growing threat to the national interest." The report also noted that "Australia would remain a terrorist target for the foreseeable future. It said East Africa joined the Middle East and South Asia as the 'primary sources of motivation and capability for extremists in Australia.'"

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