U.S. M - N


U.S. Marine Corps. Counterintelligence. FMFM 2-4. Washington. DC, 1979. [Petersen]

[MI/CI & Marines/To89]

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. "Federal Panel Orders Declassification of Selected Cold War Era Documents." The Record, Sep. 1998. [http://www.archives.gov]

Text of statement issued by the White House Office of the Press Secretary, 26 August 1998, on the work of the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) "which resolves appeals from Executive Branch classification decisions."


U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. "[Press Release:] National Archives Opens Historic CIA Cold War Era Records." 17 Mar. 2008. [http://www.archives.gov/press/press-releases/2008/nr08-74.html]

"The National Archives and Records Administration has opened 534 cubic feet or approximately 1.3 million pages of historic Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) records covering the Cold War period from 1946-1977.... These newly-released records are from the CIA's Foreign Documents Division, which provided translation, abstracting and research services on newspapers, periodicals and other foreign-language publications. The series consist of translations of newspapers, periodicals, and other foreign-language publications in verbatim, excerpt, and summary form.... Some of the newly released material is available on the NARA website through the Archival Research Catalog (ARC) at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc."

[RefMats/Guides/U.S.; RefMats/Release/From98; CIA/Components/FBIS]

U.S. National Archives and Records Service. Registers of Communications Received From Military Attaches and Other Intelligence Officers (“Dispatch Lists”), 1889-1941. Washington, DC: NARS, 1983. [5 reels + guide]


U.S. National Commission for the Review of the National Reconnaissance Office. Report: The National Commission for the Review of the National Reconnaissance Office. Washington, DC: GPO, 14 Nov. 2000.

The "Executive Summary" is available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/nro/commission/exec_sum.htm.

The Commission's "List of Recommendations" is contained in Appendix A.

"Overall Finding and Conclusion: The Commission concludes that the National Reconnaissance Office demands the personal attention of the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence. It must remain a strong, separate activity, with a focus on innovation, within the Intelligence Community and the Department of Defense. Failure to understand and support the indispensable nature of the NRO as the source of innovative new space-based intelligence collection systems will result in significant intelligence failures. These failures will have a direct influence on strategic choices facing the nation and will strongly affect the ability of U.S. military commanders to win decisively on the battlefield."

Appendix D covers the "Historical Development of the Secretary of Defense-Director of Central Intelligence Relationship with the NRO."


U.S. National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC). "Annual Report to Congress: Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage." NMIA Newsletter 11, no. 2 (1996): 24-29.

U.S. National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC). "National Counterintelligence Center -- New Publication." NMIA Newsletter 11, no. 1 (1996): 15-22.

U.S. National Reconnaissance Office. Office of Corporate Communications. "POPPY Program Fact Sheet." Washington, DC: 12 Sep. 2005. [http://www.fas.org/irp/nro/poppy.pdf]

On 12 September 2005, the POPPY electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite system was declassified. The satellite was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory in 1962. Its "mission was to collect radar emissions from Soviet naval vessels." There were seven POPPY satellites placed in space from 1962 to 1971.


U.S. National Reconnaissance Office. NRO Public Affairs. "Press Release -- President Orders Declassification of Historic Satellite Imagery Citing Value of Photography to Environmental Science." 24 Feb. 1995. [http://www.nro.gov]

On 24 February 1995, President Clinton directed "the declassification of imagery obtained by the first generation of photo-reconnaissance satellites; the CORONA, ARGON and LANYARD systems. The order will cause the declassification of more than 800,000 satellite images of the earth's surface, collected by these satellites between 1960 and 1972. By the end of an eighteen-month transition period, the public will be given access to this imagery that can be used to assist environmental studies and other civilian applications."


U.S. National Security Agency. Basic Cryptologic Glossary. Washington, DC: 1971. [Petersen]


U.S. National Security Agency. Center for Cryptologic History. The Friedman Legacy: A Tribute to William and Elizebeth Friedman. Ft. George Gordon Meade, MD: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1992.

Included here are Friedman's "Six Lectures on Cryptography." Kruh, Cryptologia 29.3 (Jul. 2005), calls this "an exceptional book."


U.S. National Security Agency. "Gulf of Tonkin -- 11/30/2005 and 05/30/2006." http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/declass/gulf_of_tonkin/index.shtml.

NSA has twice released previously classified information regarding the Vietnam era, specifically the Gulf of Tonkin incident -- 30 November 2005 and 30 May 2006. The releases include articles, chronologies, oral history interviews, SIGINT reports and translations, and other related memoranda.

[Vietnam/Refs & Topics/Tonkin]

U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. Editors. "Dark Star Makes First Flight." 122, no. 10 (Oct. 1996), 87.

Return to U Table of Contents

Return to Alphabetical Table of Contents