U.S. D - L


U.S. Department of the Army. Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application. 2 vols. Washington, DC: 1976.


U.S. Department of the Army. Medical Intelligence in a Theater of Operations. FM 8-10-8. 7 Jul. 1989.


U.S. Department of the Army. Open Source Intelligence. FMI [Field Manual Interim] 2-22.9. Washington, DC: Headquarter, Department of the Army, Dec. 2006.

"This manual expedites delivery of doctrine ... approved for immediate use in training and operations. The manual facilitates a common understanding of Army open source intelligence (OSINT) operations. As interim doctrine, it serves as a catalyst for analysis and development of Army OSINT training, concepts, materiel, and force structure. It brings Army intelligence doctrine in line with the characterization of OSINT as an intelligence discipline in Joint Publication 2-0."

[MI/Army/00s; OpenSource/From05]

U.S. Department of the Army. Psychological Operations Leaders Planning Guide. GTA [Graphic Training Aid] 33-01-001. Washington, DC: John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, Nov. 2005: [Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/psyopplan.pdf]

From "Introduction": "The focus of this GTA is to provide requisite information to help the tactical PSYOP Soldier better plan and execute PSYOP in support of a maneuver commander. Noncommissioned officers (NCOs) leading a three-man Psychological Operations team (TPT) or planning PSYOP at division or corps levels will find this GTA extremely helpful."

[CA/PsyOps; MI/Army/00s]

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Office of Inspector General. "DHS Has Not Implemented an Information Security Program for Its Intelligence Systems." OIG 06-13. Dec. 2005. [Available at: http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interweb/assetlibrary/OIG_06-13-Dec05.pdf.

"[W]e identified a major concern with DHS' management structure for the department's intelligence systems. We also identified issues regarding DHS' inventory of its SCI [Special Compartmented Information] systems, the certification and accreditation of its intelligence systems, POA&Ms [Plan of Action and Milestones], incident detection and response, and information security training and awareness. In addition, we detected a number of system security weaknesses based on our vulnerability assessments. We recommend that DHS establish a single, comprehensive, and inclusive information security program for its intelligence systems."


U.S. Department of Homeland Security. "Fact Sheet: National Applications Office." 15 Aug. 2007. [http://www.dhs.gov]

The DHS' "National Applications Office (NAO) is the executive agent to facilitate the use of intelligence community technological assets for civil, homeland security and law enforcement purposes within the United States. The office ... build[s] on the long-standing work of the Civil Applications Committee, which was created in 1974 to facilitate the use of the capabilities of the intelligence community for civil, non-defense uses in the United States."


U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Management Directive System. "Intelligence Integration and Management." DHS Management Directive 8110. 30 Jan. 2006. [Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dhs/md8110.pdf.]

This document "establishes the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis as the Chief Intelligence Officer (CINT)" for DHS, "and establishes the authorities" of the CINT "to effectively integrate and manage the Department's Intelligence programs."


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Security: Strengthening National Security through Environmental Protection. Washington, DC: EPA, 1999.


U.S. Far East Command. Military Intelligence Section. A Partial Documentation of the Sorge Espionage Case. Tokyo: 1950. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/ ww2/sorge.htm]


U.S. Government Accountability Office. Special Operations Forces: Several Human Capital Challenges Must Be Addressed to Meet Expanded Role. Washington, DC: Jul. 2006. [GAO-06-812] [Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/gao/gao-06-812.pdf]

This is a valuable report that provides detailed information on U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF). It documents both the growth in SOF from 2000 to 2005 and the difficulties they face in meeting recruiting goals in the coming years. The GAO notes that "the Special Operations Command [SOCOM] cannot provide assurances ... that currently planned growth in the number of personnel for the Command's headquarters will meet, exceed, or fall short of the requirements needed to address the Command's expanded mission....

"[F]unding for [SOCOM] has increased from more than $3.8 billion in fiscal year 2001 to more than $6.4 billion in fiscal year 2005. In addition, the Command received more than $5 billion in supplemental funds from fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005.... The President's fiscal year 2007 budget request for [SOCOM] is $8 billion....

"[SOCOM] is comprised of special operations forces from each of the military services. In fiscal year 2005, personnel authorizations for Army special operations forces military personnel totaled more than 30,000, the Air Force 11,501, the Navy 6,255, and the Marine Corps 79. Roughly one-third of special operations forces military personnel were in DOD's reserve components, including the Army, Navy, and Air Force Reserve, and the Army and Air National Guard." [footnotes omitted]


U.S. General Accounting Office.

1. "National Security: Perspectives on Worldwide Threats and Implications for U.S. Forces." Report to the Chairmen, Senate and House Committees on Armed Services. Washington, DC: GPO, 1992. [GAO/NSIAD-92-104]

2.. "National Security: Papers Prepared for GAO Conference on Worldwide Threats." Supplement to a Report to the Chairmen, Senate and House Committees on Armed Services. Washington, DC: GPO, 1992. [GAO/NSIAD-92-104S]


U.S. General Accounting Office. Soviet Economy: Assessment of How Well the CIA Has Estimated the Size of the Economy. Washington, DC: GPO, 1991. [GAO/NSIAD-91-274]


U.S. Government Accountability Office. "State Department: Preliminary Observations on the Bureau of Counterterrorism's Resources, Performance, and Coordination." GAO-15-655T: Washington, DC: GPO, 2 Jun. 2015. [http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-655T]

"GAO's preliminary analysis has found that ... [s]ince its elevation to a bureau in fiscal year 2012, the bureau has ... completed four evaluations of counterterrorism-related programs it oversees, resulting in 60 recommendations. GAO's preliminary results show that the bureau had addressed about half of the recommendations (28 of 60) as of April 2015 but had not established time frames for addressing the remaining recommendations."

[OtherAgencies/State; Terrorism/10s/15]

U.S. Information Agency. Soviet Active Measures in the "Post-Cold War" Era, 1988-1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, 1992.

"A Report Prepared at the Request of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations." Click for TEXT of this report.


U.S. Intelligence Community Staff. Community Management Staff. Quality Council Secretariat. National Performance Review: Phase II Initiatives, September 1995; An Intelligence Community Report. Washington, DC: 1995.

U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Intelligence Support to Military Operations. Joint Pub. 2-01. Washington, DC: 1996.


U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Operations. Joint Pub. 2-0. Washington, DC: 2000.


U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Soviet Intelligence and Security Services. 2 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1972- 1975. [Petersen]


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