R - Z

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Office of Inspector General. Investigations Staff. Report of Investigation Concerning Allegations of Connections Between the CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG). Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998.

1. Overview: Report of Investigation. Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/overview-of-report-of-investigation-2.html]

"No information has been found to indicate that any past or present employee of CIA, or anyone acting on behalf of CIA, had any direct or indirect dealing with Ricky Ross, Oscar Danilo Blandon or Juan Norwin Meneses. Additionally, no information has been found to indicate that CIA had any relationship or contact with Ronald J. Lister or David Scott Weekly, the person Lister allegedly claimed was his CIA contact. No information has been found to indicate that any of these individuals was ever employed by CIA, or met by CIA employees or anyone acting on CIA's behalf."

2. Volume I: The California Story. Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/report/index.html]

"Note: This is an unclassified version of a Report of Investigation that included information that is classified for national security reasons pursuant to Executive Order 12958 and sensitive law enforcement information. To the fullest extent possible, the text of this unclassified version is the same as that included in the classified version. Where different language has been required for national security or law enforcement purposes, the revised language is as close as possible to the original text."

2. Volume II: The Contra Story. Washington, DC: 8 Oct. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/report-of-investigation-volume-ii-the-contra-story-2.html]

"No information has been found to indicate that CIA as an organization or its employees conspired with, or assisted, Contra-related organizations or individuals in drug trafficking to raise funds for the Contras or for any other purpose."

[CIA/90s/97-00/Crack; CIA/90s/98/Contras]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Office of Inspector General. Investigations Staff. Report of Investigation: Improper Handling of Classified Information by John M. Deutch. (1998-0028-IG) Washington, DC: 18 Feb. 2000.

Click for text of the unclassified version of the IG's report.


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Inspector General. Report of Investigation: Procedures used in Narcotics Airbridge Denial Program in Peru, 1995-2001. 25 Aug. 2008 [Approved for release 1 Nov. 2010]. Available at: http://www.foia.cia.gov.

The report concludes that: "Violations of the required procedures to intercept and shoot down an aircraft occurred in all 15 ABDP [Airbridge Denial Program] shootdowns in which CIA had participated, beginning in May 1995. CIA officers knew of and condoned most of these violations, fostering an environment of negligence and disregard for procedures designed to protect against the loss of innocent life that culminated in the downing of the missionary plane....

"Throughout the life of the ABDP, there was evidence of deviations trom the required procedures, both in the videotapes of the shootdowns and in the reporting cables [redaction] CIA officers charged with legal and policy oversight of the program ignored this evidence. Their failure to provide adequate oversight and report violations precluded a policy review and a possible change in course that could have prevented the shootdown of April 2001."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Counterintelligence Staff. The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945. Washington, DC: University Publications of America, Inc., 1979.

Also listed as Paul Kesaris, ed., The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Scouting Intelligence (Lanham, MD: University Publications of America, 1979); and The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1979).

Pforzheimer says this is "perhaps the most authoritative work on the Rote Kapelle (including the Rote Drei based in Switzerland)." It is "not easy reading." The fact that it is "essentially a staff study ... does not dilute its importance for specialists in ... Soviet intelligence."

To Constantinides, the book "will be the measure of other works on the subject until new information is discovered.... [I]t readily recognizes and admits gaps in its knowledge and takes care to distinguish fact from speculation." Aldrich, I&NS 11.3, notes that the CIA study is both "useful and accurate," but it is also "a dry handbook of tradecraft written for practitioners of counter-intelligence, rather than a rounded historical study."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence The Russian Security Services: Sorting Out the Pieces. Washington, DC: 1992.

Surveillant 3.1: This "reference aid provides an overview of the Russian organizations that have evolved from the USSR's KGB and internal security services. The paper also includes leadership profiles of important figures within each new entity." Clark comment: In 2012, the material here is 20 years old, which limits its usefulness.

[Russia/90s & RefMats][c]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Center for the Study of Intelligence. History Staff. Donald P. Steury, ed. Sherman Kent and the Board of National Estimates: Collected Essays. Washington, DC: 1994.

Sherman Kent chaired the Board of National Estimates from 1952 to 1967. His influence in that time on the way the CIA and the intelligence community prepared the centerpiece National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) was substantial. This book brings together some of his writings on intelligence topics. Of particular siginificance is his article "The Law and Custom of the National Intelligence Estimate."

[Analysis/T&M/Kent (under Steury)][c]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Public Affairs Staff. "Stephen R. Kappes Assumes Duties As CIA Deputy Director." 25 Jul. 2006. [https://www.cia.gov]

"In a televised message to the CIA workforce [on 24 July 2006], Director Michael V. Hayden announced that Stephen R. Kappes has begun work as the Agency's Deputy Director.... [F]ormer Deputy Director, Vice Admiral Albert M. Calland III, USN,... [was] nominated by President Bush last month to be Deputy Director for Strategic Operational Planning at the National Counterterrorism Center."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The Strategic Investment Plan for Intelligence Community Analysis. Washington, DC: 2001. [https://www.cia.gov]

[Analysis/Gen; GenPostCW/00s/Gen]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Symposium on Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962, Held in McLean, VA, on October 19, 1992. Videotape. Washington, DC: 1994.

Surveillant 3.6: 40-minute video of panel discussion among members of Intelligence Community during the Kennedy Administration.


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Center for the Study of Intelligence. David A. Peterson, compiler. Symposium on Teaching Intelligence, October 1-2, 1993. Washington, DC: 1994.


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Mathtech. Office of Research and Development. Thoughts on the Cost-Effectiveness of Deception and Related Tactics in the Air War, 1939-1945. Washington, DC: March 1979.

Constantinides: "The air war that is covered is really the RAF bomber offensive in Europe and in essence just night bombing.... The main conclusion and lesson, that wartime deception was cost-effective, is equally applicable to current military conflicts."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The Trust. Arlington. VA: Security and Intelligence Foundation, 1989.

Petersen: "Reprint: Soviet deception targeting exiles, intelligence, and counterintelligence in the 1920s."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Unclassified Abstract of the CIA Inspector General's Report on the Aldrich H. Ames Case. Washington, DC: 1994.

Surveillant 4.4/5: "This abstract is 78 numbered paragraphs which constituted the summary, and includes a preface to the report by the IG."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Unclassified Summary of the Final Report of the Office of Inspector General Investigation of CIA's Handling of BNL-Related Matters, 14 January 1993. Washington, DC: 1993.

Surveillant 3.1: "Banca Nazionale del Lavorno (BNL).... [F]ocuses totally on CIA and lists a good number of shortcomings in CIA's responses to the BNL/DoJ matter."


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