U - Unj


Ucko, David H. "A Concept in Crisis: Counterinsurgency after Afghanistan." Prism 3, no. 1 (Dec. 2011). [http://www.ndu.edu/press/counterinsurgency-after-afghanistan.html]

From "Abstract": "Counterinsurgency theory, once celebrated as having pulled Iraq back from the brink, is now in crisis due to its record in Afghanistan.... The lessons of recent counterinsurgency campaigns must therefore be retained for future military interventions -- and prompt greater caution among military strategists and policymakers about such undertakings. Careful study and research are needed to determine how best to apply this theory to future operations, and it is fair to say that it is better at raising the right questions than in providing the answers."


Ucko, David H. The New Counterinsurgency Era: Transforming the U.S. Military for Modern Wars. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2009.

Cohen, Washington Post, 6 Dec. 2009, comments that this "is a dense, scholarly and useful work on how the American military adapted to counterinsurgency during the Iraq war, both on the ground and in the classrooms of Fort Leavenworth.... The book captures the Army's self-inflicted amnesia about counterinsurgency in the wake of Vietnam and the difficult steps needed to relearn old lessons." For Korb, I&NS 26.2&3 (Apr.-Jun. 2011), this is a "well-sourced" and "well-argued" work. Freier, Parameters 41.2 (Summer 2011), finds that the author "does an excellent job outlining the policy and doctrine forensics of the current state of play."


Uhrlau, Ernst. “A Post-Cold War Intelligence Service.” Transatlantic Internationale Politik 4 (2000): 1–7.

When this article was written, the author was the German chancellor's coordinator of intelligence. Later, he headed the German Foreign Intelligence Service (BND). He emphasizes that "in the future the BND will have to confront the dynamics of the dangers arising from today's transnational issues, besides carrying out its share of intelligence-gathering duties in Germany's international peacekeeping, peacemaking, or humanitarian missions."


Ukman, Jason, and Greg Miller. "CIA Ran Vaccine Drive to Obtain DNA of bin Laden Relatives, U.S. Officials Acknowledge." Washington Post, 13 Jul. 2011. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"U.S. officials have acknowledged the CIA organized a vaccine program in the Pakistani town where they believed Osama bin Laden to be hiding in an effort to obtain DNA from his family.... The Guardian newspaper disclosed ... this week ... that the agency had recruited a senior Pakistani doctor to travel to Abbottabad to organize it. That doctor has since been arrested by the country's Inter-Services Intelligence agency for cooperating with the agency, and U.S. officials have said they are seeking to have him released."


Ulbricht, Heinz. Die Schlüsselmaschine Enigma: Trügerische Sicherheit. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2007.

Kahn, Intelligencer 17.1 (Winter-Spring 2009), calls this work "the most exhaustive on the Enigma itself ever written."


Ulbricht, Heinz. "Uncle Dick and Other Horrors of the Enigma." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001): 44-53. [http://www.intelligence-history.org]

From abstract: "Bletchley Park was quite effective in solving the German keys [of the Enigma] until in January 1944 some messages resisted the usual treatment. This was due to an additional reflector,... soon nicknamed 'Uncle Dick'.... Fortunately, different key nets used either one or the other reflector and even committed the sin of re-enciphering messages.... Another new contraption designed to improve the security of the Enigma in 1944 was the 'Enigma-Uhr.' It was the only alteration by the Germans ... that had been introduced without any warning.... In the worst case, a message had been encoded with both 'Dora' and the 'Uhr.' These and other measures confirm that the Enigma, if handled properly, was indeed unbreakable by any known method."


Ulfving, Lars, and Frode Weierud. "The Geheimschreiber Secret: Arne Beurling and the Success of Swedish Signals Intelligence." At: https://cryptocellar.web.cern.ch/cryptocellar/pubs/ulfving_weierud_secret.pdf.

In World War II, "the breaking of the cipher from the German Enigma machines and the Japanese Purple machines [footnote omitted] was of crucial importance. The considerably greater intellectual effort needed to break the Geheimschreiber messages, which was accomplished in Sweden, did not in any way have the same decisive significance for the war. Therefore this accomplishment has not been so well known. However, from a Swedish perspective, it was of considerable importance as it actively contributed to keep Sweden out of the war."


Ullman, Donald F. [COL/USA] "HUMINT in the Military." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 71-73.

Ullman, Richard H. "Redefining Security." International Security 8, no. 1 (Summer 1983): 129-153.


Ulstein, Ragnar. "Norwegian Intelligence in the Second World War." In Britain and Norway in the Second World War, ed. Patrick Salmon, 129-40. London: HMSO, 1995.


Umphress, David A. [LTCOL/USAFR] "Diving the Digital Dumpster: The Impact of the Internet on Collecting Open-Source Intelligence." Air & Space Power Journal 19, no. 4 (Winter 2005). [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil]

"Although the Internet makes possible the free flow of information, the Air Force should not necessarily make all information freely available through the Internet." The question is: "how much unclassified information the Air Force should make publicly available, realizing the possibility of assembling compromising intelligence from seemingly innocent information."


Underdown, David. Royalist Conspiracy in England, 1649-60. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1960. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1971.


Ungar, Sanford J.

1. FBI: An Uncensored Look Behind the Walls. Boston: Atlantic, Little, Brown, 1976

According to Pforzheimer, this book "was published before much of the testimony ... in 1975-76 before various congressional committees which went into great detail on many of the Bureau's operations in the internal security area." Wilcox says it is a "[c]ritical account, especially with respect to political surveillance of leftists."

2. "The FBI File." The Atlantic 235 (Apr. 1975): 37-52. [Petersen]


Ungar, Sanford J. "Pitch Imperfect: The Trouble at the Voice of America." Foreign Affairs 84, no. 3 (May-Jun. 2005): 7-13.

"[E]ven as ... the international image of the United States is in steep decline, the country's best instrument of public diplomacy, the Voice of America (VOA) broadcast service, is being systematically diminished." FA 84.4 (Jul.-Aug.. 2005): 201-205 carries responses from VOA Director David S. Jackson; Kenneth Y. Tomlinson, Chairman, U.S. Broadcasting Board of Governors; Radio Free Asia President Richard Richter; former VOA White House correspondent Philomena Jurey; and a response to the responses by Ungar.


Ungoed-Thomas, Jon, and Clive Freeman. "'Lovely Old Lady' of the Suburbs Defends Her 40 Years of Treason." Sunday Times (London), 12 Sept. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

Remarks of Melita Norwood (see BBC reportage of 11 September 1999).


United Press International.

University of Cincinnati Law Review. "Administrative Law -- Freedom of Information Act -- an agency's unpublished time of request cutoff date for searching its files for records requested under the Freedom of Information Act is invalid as unreasonable unless exceptional circumstances are shown; all records in an agency's possession, whether created by the agency itself or by another agency, are 'agency records' -- McGehee v. Central Intelligence Agency, 697 F.2d 1095." 52 (1983): 921-935.


University of Florida Law Review. "Passport Revocation: Balancing Constitutional Freedoms with National Security Concerns." 33 (Fall 1981): 763-776.


University of Michigan Clements Library, "Spy Letters of the American Revolution (from the Collections of the Clements Library)" at: http://www2.si.umich.edu/spies/index-about.html.


University of Toledo Law Review. "National Security Interests vs. the First Amendment: Haig v. Agee (101 S. Ct. 2766)." 13 (Summer 1982): 1437-1467.


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