Stéphane Lefebvre

Q - Z


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Russian Intelligence Activities in Canada: The Latest Case of an 'Illegal.'" Journal of Slavic Military Studies 20, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 2007): 549-558.

"This article discusses Russia's use of 'illegals' for espionage purposes, using the recent Canadian case of one 'Paul William Hampel.' Unmasked in November 2006, his case ... was reminiscent of another one a decade earlier which involved two Russians who also operated under false Canadian identities.... [T]hat Russia is still using Canada for espionage purposes should not come as a surprise. One of the few tools Russia has[,] absent a strong economy and rejuvenated armed forces, is its intelligence apparatus. Hampel's case should serve as a warning to all well-established advanced democracies: espionage is as important today as it ever was in the pursuit of a state's national interests."

[Canada/Spies; Russia/00s/07]

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Sex Again: The Smith-Leung Case." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 296-304.

"Smith was not properly held to account, which indicates a failure in leadership and administrative/personnel management at the Bureau.... Smith's lack of respect for well-established operational and ethical standards could have been caught sooner had the FBI's operational and personnel policies been fully and consistently enforced."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Spying on Friends? The Franklin Case, AIPAC, and Israel." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 600-621.

Does not see any lasting effect on U.S.-Israeli relations coming out of this case.


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Turkey's Intelligence Community in Changing Times." International Journal 51, no. 1 (Winter 2005-2006): 105-124.

Turkey "has a well-developed, experienced, and relatively efficient intelligence apparatus. While it is dominated by the National Intelligence Organization (Milli Istihbarat Teskilati -- MIT), which has a broad mandate both at home and abroad to gather intelligence related to national security, it is equally well served by intelligence organizations focused on criminal and security intelligence gathering at home, such as the General Directorate of Security (Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü -- EGM)."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The U.S. Counterintelligence Corps and Czechoslovak Human Intelligence Operations, 1947-1972." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 120-133.

During the Cold War, "the StB was focused primarily on internal security.... While good at intimidating people, the StB performed rather poorly as an intelligence-gathering organization.... [footnote omitted] [T]he role played by the CIC in countering" Czechoslovak human intelligence operations against Western targets "must be recognized."

[WWII/U.S./Services/Army/CIC; OtherCountries/Czechoslovakia/CW]

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Jeremy Littlewood. "Guide to Canadian Intelligence Issues." Intelligencer 19, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 2012): 63-66.

"While American students and practitioners are well served" by recently edited volumes and anthologies on the subject of intelligence and its study, "Canadians, unfortunately, have no single volume to point to that captures the breadth and detail oftheir own nation's intelligence experience.[footnote omitted] ... [T]his short article brings together a set of readings for the study of Canadian intelligence."


Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Intelligence Aspects of the 2008 Conflict Between Russia and Georgia." Journal of Slavic Military Studies 22, no. 1, (2009): 4-19.

"Georgia's underestimation of the strength and overall military capabilities of the Russian armed forces as well as the planning and force of the Russian response, lack of Western intervention, even what has been referred to Saakashvili's 'gamble' in the Georgian attack on Tskhinvali, may all reflect in some measure the failures and systemic weakness of Georgian intelligence. These factors will prove important in any remedying undertaken by the government in Tbilisi, and will need to be understood by [NATO] as it considers how best to assist in efforts to enhance the security capabilities of post-conflict Georgia."

[OtherCountries/Georgia; Russia/00s/08]

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Roger N. McDermott. "Russia and the Intelligence Services of Central Asia." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 251-301.

The authors cover Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, as well as "Russia's lingering influence." The authors conclude that "the main intelligence agency in each of the Central Asian states has yet to operate similarly to those of mature democracies. For the most part, none is transparent or subject to any kind of rigorous review or oversight. In addition to traditional intelligence gathering functions, each has law enforcement powers that are at times used discriminately in support of the political regime in power."

[OtherCountries/Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Russia/Overviews/00s]

Lefebvre, Stéphane, and Holly Porteous. "The Russian 10 ... 11: An Inconsequential Adventure?" International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 3 (Fall 2011): 447-466.

This article provides a good survey of the case of the ten Russian illegals rounded up in June 2010 and traded back to Russia for four individuals being held in that country in July. One conclusion: "[G]iven the expense and long-term commitment of developing and placing these kinds of assets, one of the 'take aways' of this incident for Russia may be to revisit or reinstill operational training, operational security, and discipline. Little excuse is acceptable for operatives to have been so lax about basic operational security and so ignorant of the technologies they were using."


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