Stéphane Lefebvre

A - P


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Canada's Intelligence Culture: An Evaluation." In Democratization of Intelligence: Melding Strategic Intelligence and National Discourse, eds. Russell G. Swenson and Susana C. Lemozy, 79-98. Washington, DC: National Defense Intelligence College Press, 2009.


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Canada's Legal Framework for Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 23, no. 2 (Summer 2010): 247-295.

"The legal framework for intelligence in Canada was not much in anyone's mind prior to 9/11, with the exception of the review mechanisms for the CSIS. [footnote omitted] As national security law has become more pervasive in its effect on individual rights, more attention is being paid to it by scholars."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The Case of Donald Keyser and Taiwan's National Security Bureau." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 3 (Fall 2007): 512-526.

This article furnishes a quick walkthrough of the Keyser case. Lefebvre's conclusion is that "Keyser seems to have been a target of opportunity who presented himself vulnerably due to his infatuation with Cheng. Or did Isabelle Cheng purposefully target him after spotting his fondness for her?"


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Croatia and the Development of a Democratic Intelligence System (1990–2010)." Democracy and Security 8, no. 2 (2012): 115-163.

The author "concludes that changes in governance, organization, oversight, and accountability, along with pressures to join European institutions, have helped Croatia develop an intelligence system increasingly respectful of democratic norms, human rights, and the rule of law."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Cuban Intelligence Activities Directed at the United States, 1959-2007." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 3 (Fall 2009): 452-469.

The author concludes that "the threat posed by Cuban intelligence agencies is to be taken seriously." Until there is a regime change in Cuba, "the United States and Cuban exiles will continue to be the primary targets of Cuba's efficient intelligence agencies."

On 4 June 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed the convictions of the five Cuban agents and the sentences of Gonzalez and Hernandez. The Court vacated and remanded the sentences of Campa, Medina, and Guerrero back to the District Court. [LA/Cuba/98]

Stéphane Lefebvre, "Readers' Forum: Cuba Does It Again," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 760-761, updates his original article by discussing the case of Walter Kendall Myers and his wife, Gwendolyn.

[LA/Cuba/Gen; SpyCases/Gen]

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The Czech Experience With Intelligence Reforms, 1993–2010." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 24, no. 4 (Winter 2011-2012): 692-710."

"Throughout most of its existence, the Czech intelligence community has been subjected to half-hearted, poorly thought out attempts at reform, coordination, and cooperation which have compounded the animosity that developed early on among the various intelligence services.... [A] lack of communication among the agencies involved in the fight against terrorism continues to be a problem."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The Difficulties and Dilemma of International Intelligence Cooperation." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 4 (Winter 2003-2004): 527-542.

The author surveys both multilateral and bilateral relationships. He concludes that bilateral arrangements are "the preferred means of international intelligence cooperation." In essence, the purpose of multilateral arrangements are "more political."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Intelligence Sharing and Law Enforcement Cooperation between Nations." In Counterterrorism: From the Cold War to the War on Terror, ed. Frank C. Shanty, 270-275. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2012.

"Intelligence sharing and law enforcement cooperation between nations are complex and at times very challenging activities.... Yet they are essential if transnational threats and criminal activities are to be effectively countered, prevented, or disrupted."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Lithuania, the CIA, and Intelligence Reform." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 571-594.

"While Lithuania claims that its intelligence services now operate according to the democratic norms, internationally accepted human rights principles, and the rule of law, determining that to be the case with a high degree of certainty remains difficult. Careful monitoring of the situation, and especially of Parliament's effectiveness in carrying out its oversight function, will remain necessary for the foreseeable future to ensure that Lithuania does not diverge from its democratic commitments."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "A Look at Intelligence Analysis." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 231-264.

The author discusses some of the views as to what intelligence analysis is and should be, and touches on some of the "many proposals floating around to improve the analytic performance of the intelligence community."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Pakistan's Illiberal Democracy and the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate." National Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (2009): 7-41.

"Distancing the ISI from domestic politics, and refocusing it on terrorism rather than on India are important steps towards normalizing the functioning of an intelligence agency within a nascent democratic system. However, the governance and oversight problems, such as those noted in this article, must be tackled urgently as part of a well thought out and coordinated effort to develop a properly functioning democratic polity."


Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The PRC's Compromise of U.S. Government Information and Technologies." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 652-666.

The author looks at three cases: The Mak family; Bergersen, and Roth/Sherman. He also explores the difficulties of trying to catch Chinese spies.

[SpyCases/U.S./ChiMak & 2008)

Return to Leea-Lef