Loch Johnson

D - R


Johnson, Loch K. "DCI Webster's Legacy: The Judge's Self-Assessment." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 287-290.


Johnson, Loch K. "An Elephant Rolling a Pea." Diplomatic History 30 (Apr. 2006): 327-333.

This is Professor Johnson's critique of the report of the 9/11 Commission.


Johnson, Loch K. "The Evolution of CIA Accountability." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1995): 43-46.

Johnson "grades" the CIA's exposure to external review from the legislative, executive, and judicial branches on a scale of "high," "moderate," and "low" for the years 1947-1994.


Johnson, Loch K. "Glimpses into the Gems of American Intelligence: The President's Daily Brief and the National Intelligence Estimate." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 3 (Jun. 2008): 333-370.

The following are a few of the salient observations in this article: "The PDB is more than a document; it is a process, allowing intelligence officers to interact with decision-makers and provide useful supportive information.... Even if NIEs are less than perfect instruments for predicting future events, they at least have the virtue of marshaling together in one place a reliable set of facts about a situation abroad of interest to the United States.... Regarding the value of PDBs and NIEs, the verdict is clear: they contribute. Improvements are necessary, though."


Johnson, Loch K. "Harry Howe Ransom and American Intelligence Studies." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 3 (Jun. 2007): 402-428.

Interview conducted on 23 September 2006. Johnson provides a detailed introduction to the interview.

[Overviews/U.S./00s; RefMats/Teaching]

Johnson, Loch K. "Legislative Reform of Intelligence Policy." Polity 17, no. 3 (Spring 1985): 549-573.


Johnson, Loch K. "Making the Intelligence 'Cycle' Work." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 4 (1986): 1-23.

The focus here is not on some theoretical construct but specifically on the CIA's "intelligence cycle" -- planning and direction, collection, processing, production and analysis, and dissemination. Although somewhat dated today, this remains a useful article.

[CIA/Components/DI; Overviews/U.S./To89][c]

Johnson, Loch K. "On Drawing a Bright Line for Covert Operations." American Journal of International Law 89 (Apr. 1992): 284-309.

[CA; Overviews/Legal]

Johnson, Loch K. "Ostriches, Cheerleaders, Skeptics, and Guardians: Role Selection by Congressional Intelligence Overseers." SAIS Review 28, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2008): 93-108.

"Since 1975, members of Congress have displayed four general responses to the call for greater intelligence accountability": Ostriches, Cheerleaders, Skeptics, and Guardians. "Ultimately, it is the guardians that should serve as models for the future," as they seek to strike "a balance between serving as partners of the intelligence agencies on Capitol Hill, and ... demanding competence and law-abiding behavior from these agencies."


Johnson, Loch K. "Preface to a Theory of Strategic Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 4 (Winter 2003-2004): 638-663.

The author explores "the key dimensions of intelligence" in an effort to clarify "what must be taken into account in answering the spy-side of the venerable question 'how much defense is enough.'"


Johnson, Loch K. "The Role of Congress in U.S. Strategic Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 11, no. 3 (Jul. 1990): 41-45.


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