Hoffman, David. "After U.S. Protests, Russia Frees American Technician Accused of Espionage." Washington Post, 7 Dec. 1997, A34.
Ronald Bliss was freed in Rostov on 6 December 1997 but must remain in the city pending trial.
Hoffman, David. "American Accused of Spying: Russia Briefly Detains Diplomat." Washington Post, 1 Dec. 1999, A36. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
A spokesman of the Russian domestic intelligence agency said that Ms. Leberknight "was 'caught red-handed'.... Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said she 'will leave Moscow shortly,' according to the Interfax news agency.... In Washington, intelligence officials attributed the detention and expected departure of Leberknight to tensions between American and Russian intelligence agencies."
Hoffman, David. "Embassy Identifies Accused American Spy." Washington Post, 8 Apr. 2000, A12. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
The American Embassy has identified the U.S. citizen being "detained by Russia on suspicion of espionage as Edmond Pope.... Pope, a former Navy captain, was affiliated with Pennsylvania State University's Applied Research Laboratory from 1994 to 1997.... He later founded a company called CERF International, for which he was apparently working in Moscow."
Reuters, "American Held Without Charges," New York Times, 8 Apr. 2000, adds that State Department spokesman James P. Rubin stated on 7 April 2000 that "Russia had not [yet] formally charged" Pope. Kempster, Los Angeles Times, 8 Apr. 2000, reports that the Pentagon had said that Pope retired from the U.S. Navy "in March 1994 after a 27-year career that included stints with the Naval Intelligence Command and the Defense Intelligence Agency."
Hoffman, David. "Putin Book Details His KGB Past." Washington Post, 14 Mar. 2000, A14. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
Acting Russian President Vladimir V. Putin disclosed in a book-length interview, "In the First Person," published on 13 March 2000 "that his main assignment as a Soviet KGB agent in East Germany during the late 1980s was spying on NATO."
Hoffman, David. "Putin Steps Out of the Shadows: Russian's Career Rooted in KGB." Washington Post, 30 Jan. 2000, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
A review of Vladimir Putin's career shows that he "previously thrived in closed worlds, first as an intelligence agent and later in city government."
Hoffman, David. "Putin Wins Russian Election." Washington Post, 27 Mar. 2000, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
Hoffman, David E. "Reagan Approved Plan to Sabotage Soviets: Book Recounts Cold War Program That Made Technology Go Haywire." Washington Post, 27 Feb. 2004, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
In his new book At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War, Thomas C. Reed, a former Air Force secretary who served in the National Security Council from January 1982 to June 1983, says that President Reagan approved a CIA plan in January 1982 "to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions." This included "software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline."
See also Gus W. Weiss, "The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets," Studies in Intelligence 35, no. 9 (1996): 121-128; and "The Farewell Dossier: Strategic Deception in the Cold War." Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 23-28.
[CIA/80s; GenPostwar/CW; GenPostwar/Econ/Govt]
Hoffman, David. "Russia Charges American as Spy." Washington Post, 28 Sep. 2000, A27. [http://www.washingtonpost.com
On 27 September 2000, the Russian prosecutor general sent to court "official charges against Edmond Pope, the American businessman accused of espionage for seeking out details of a high-powered Russian torpedo. The move means that the next phase in the case will be a trial, perhaps next month, but no date has been set."
Hoffman, David. "Russia Detains Arms Expert, Two Others Searched Over Possible Secrets Leak." Washington Post, 31 Oct. 1999, A32. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
"The Russian Federal Security Service [FSB] has searched and interrogated three arms control and nuclear weapons specialists -- two Russians and one American -- and one of the Russians has been detained, the specialists said [on 30 October 1999].... The [Russian] investigators have been asking questions about a possible leak of classified information."
A follow-on story, David Hoffman, "Russian Arms Researcher Charged With Spying for U.S.," Washington Post, 18 Nov. 1999, A35, quotes "sources" for the information that the chief of the section on military technological research at the Institute for the Study of the United States and Canada, Igor Sutyagin, was arrested by the Federal Security Service on 27 October 1999 and charged with "spying for the United States."
Hoffman, David. "Russia May Pardon American Convicted as Spy." Washington Post, 7 Dec. 2000. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
Russia's pardons commission is expected to recommend on 8 December 2000 "that President Vladimir Putin grant clemency to American businessman Edmond Pope,... the chairman of the panel said" on 7 December 2000.
Hoffman, David. "Russia's Blind Eye in the Sky." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 15 Feb. 1999, 15.
"Russia's early-warning defense against missile attack ... is deteriorating because Moscow cannot replenish the array of satellites it needs to monitor U.S. missile silos and submarines."
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