Defense Intelligence Journal

["Ethics"] and "The Role of Intelligence in Fighting Terrorism"


1. Defense Intelligence Journal. ["Ethics."] 16, no. 1 (2007): Entire issue.

1. A. Denis Clift, "President's Column," pp. 1-2.

On renaming of Joint Military Intelligence College as the National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC).

2. Department of Defense Instruction, "National Defense Intelligence College," No. 3305.01, 22 Dec. 2006, pp. 3-9.

3. Charlotte A. M. Gallagher, "From the Publisher/Managing Editor," p. 11.

"Ethics as applied to intelligence is in its nascent form. This issue is part of the process to create and establish the vocabulary, concepts, principles, and literature of intelligence ethics."

4. Jan Goldman, "From the Guest Editor," pp. 15-17.

"[T]his issue is dedicated in its enirety to the conceptual notion of applying ethics to intelligence."

5. John W. Lango, "Collective Security and the Goals of Intelligence," pp. 19-31.

Analogizing from just war theory, the author argues that "a just cause principle should govern the resort to intelligence." By means of this principle, the question, "What are the just goals of intelligence," can be answered.

6. Kenneth R. Dombroski, "Who Guards the Guardians?" pp. 33-37.

"In the end, despite all the oversight mechanisms designed to control an intelligence community, the ultimate safeguard is the qaulity of the people working in the intelligence community -- measured by their adherence to a professional ethic."

7. Kurt Schick, "Rhetoric, Ethics, and National Intelligence," 39-48.

"By following good rhetorical practices ourselves, we persuade our audiences, indirectly, to adhere to higher standards of reasoning."

8. William D. Casebeer, "Just War Theory and the Purposes of Intelligence," 49-60.

The author seeks to lay the foundation for a "just intelligence theory."

9. Michael Skerker, "Intelligence Ethics and Non-Coercive Interrogation," 61-76.

"In an intelligence setting, more of a burden is arguably placed on ethics and prudence than law, because the secret nature of operations often precludes broad legal oversight."

10. Shlomo Shpiro, "Speak No Evil: Intelligence Ethics in Israel," 77-92.

This article "concentrates on five core elements of intelligence ethics in Israel": telling the truth, protecting your sources internally as well as externally, resisting internal cover-ups, respecting religion, and individual moral character.

11. Lajos Racz, "Ethical and Logical Considerations in Intelligence Analysis and Reporting," 93-106.

"Honesty is exact knowledge about what is known, what is believed, how the supportive information was gathered, and why it can be reliable or unfounded. Honesty is the moral courage to confess the limitations of one's lnowledge."

12. James A. Stroble, "The Perfidy of Espionage," 107-119.

The author argues that "the substance of the moral charges against espionage still hold. Spying ... necessarily involves ... lying. By distinguishing espionage from intelligence, it is possible to begin ... formulating a professional code of ethics for the Intelligence Community (IC) that addresses the traditional disapproval of espionage and that seeks to distance itself from the actual moral harm, if any, of espionage."

13. Christopher Vallandingham, "The Ethics of Spying: A Literature Review," 121-133.

This is an organized, quick-quote jaunt through some of the things said about the morality of spying, with a substantial set of endnotes.

14. Rebecca Bolton, "U.S. Army Human Intelligence Collectors' (HIC) Survey on Ethics," 141-155.

See Jan Goldman, "Guest Editor's Note," pp. 137-140.

15. John Lunstroth, "A Proposed Analysts' Code of Ethics," 157-163.

The proposed code "is derived directly" from IC Directive No. 200, issued by the DNI on 8 January 2007.

2. Defense Intelligence Journal. "The Role of Intelligence in Fighting Terrorism." 11, no. 1 (Winter 2002): Entire issue.

1. Melvyn Levitsky, "Fighting Terrorism: A New Kind of Enemy and a New Kind of War," pp. 11-15.

"[W]e must view our embassies as forward deployed assets and protect their ability to function effectively as a key objective in our overall campaign."

2. Paul R. Pillar, "Fighting International Terrorism: Beyond September 11th," pp. 17-26.

"[U]nlike ... most other wars the United States has waged," the war on terrorism "will not have a clear end.... If history is a guide, even the currrent enthusiasm for counterterrorism ... will slacken over time.... Americans will ... need much patience and persistence, into an indefinite future."

3. Pauletta Otis, "The Nature of Religious Terrorism," pp. 27-36.

"There are three major targets to be addressed by the Intelligence Community: the individual terrorist, the religious community from which participants can be drawn, and the identification of specific situations where the necessary and sufficient conditions for a terrorist attack are met."

4. Mark V. Kauppi, "Counterterrorism Analysis 101," pp. 39-53.

Expectations with regard to performance and accountability "should be based on a realistic appraisal of the challenges faced by counterterrorism analysts who on a daily basis deal with amorphous and fragmentary information."

5. Katherine M. Shelfer and June M. Verner, "Improving Counterterrorism Analysis: Using Scenarios to Support the Development and Use of Integrated Information Systems," pp. 55-70.

The authors discuss "the need for the development of integrated civilian and military information systems, especially lessons-learned databases." They emphasize "the potential value of using scenarios to support better design and more effective use of such integrated databases."

6. Robert L. Hubbard, "Another Response to Terrorism: Reconstituting Intelligence Analysis for 21st Century Requirements," pp. 71-80.

The Intelligence Community needs to "return to requirements-based resourcing and develop realistic force level planning and acquisition based on the requirements that are being laid upon it."

7. [Author unnamed, although article is accompanied by a bio], "Where Is Defense HUMINT in America's New War?" pp. 81-89.

The author argues that since 1995, when "civilian strategic HUMINT collectors" working for the military services became DIA employees and the Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) was formed, "critical and devastating shortcomings ... have crept into the HUMINT system."

8. [Editors], "The Terrorist Attack on America: Background," pp. 91-95.

This is a list of previously published articles, with abstracts, being made available by Foreign Affairs.

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