Best, Richard A., Jr. Imagery Intelligence: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 12 Apr. 2002. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31369.pdf.
The importance of imagery intelligence "has been growing significantly in recent years. The challenge is to design organizations to obtain, analyze, and disseminate the result of new technologies to support an evolving defense and national security structure while remaining within budgetary constraints. The mixture of cutting-edge technologies, complex organizational structures, and budgetary limitations complicate decision-making." Includes useful appendices focused on the NRO and NIMA.
[MI/NGA/02; NRO/02; Recon/Imagery]
Best, Richard A., Jr. "Intelligence and U.S. National Security Policy." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 28, no. 3 (Fall 2015): 449-467.
This article is focused and astute, as so much of Best's work for CRS as been over the years. It is highly recommended. His conclusion: "Intelligence agencies have left behind a public record of substantial support to national security policymaking that can, by no reasonable standard, be described as a legacy of ashes [footnote omitted]; they deserve honest treatment by historians and journalists."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 20 Jan. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R40240.pdf.
"Since President Bush signed the FY2005 Intelligence Authorization bill (P.L. 108-487) in December 2004, no subsequent intelligence authorization legislation was enacted until the FY2010 bill was signed by President Obama in October 2010 (after the end of FY2010).... Although the October 2010 legislation was enacted too late to authorize spending during FY2010, the Act did include long-sought legislation provisions and reflected congressional determination to return to annual intelligence authorization acts."
Best, Richard A., Jr. The Intelligence Community and 9/11: Proposals for An Independent Commission. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 6 Nov. 2002. Available at: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/31581.pdf.
"In separate legislation, the House and Senate have endorsed proposals for an independent commission [to assess the performance of the U.S. Intelligence Community in regard to the 9/11 attacks]. Proponents argue that an investigation by persons without ties to intelligence agencies could provide greater assurance of an impartial assessment that could lead, if necessary, to improvements in the nation's intelligence effort. Opponents argue that it would usurp the responsibilities of congressional intelligence committees, burden senior intelligence officials, and risk exposure of intelligence assets deeply involved in the current struggle against terrorism."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DoD Intelligence Agencies. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 21 Dec. 2004. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32515.pdf.
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress? Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 6 Jan. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33733.pdf.
"There seems to be an emerging consensus that publicly releasing NIEs, or even unclassified summaries, has limitations. Some of the nuances of classified intelligence judgments are lost and there are concerns that public release of an unclassified summary of a complicated situation does not effectively serve the legislative process. In passing the FY2010 Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 111-84), Congress chose not to require an NIE on the nuclear ambitions of certain states and non-state actors, but rather to request biennial reports (with unclassified summaries) from the DNI."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 9 May 2006. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/IB10012.pdf.
Issues in the 109th Congress: Quality of Analysis; Implementation of the Intelligence Reform Act (P.L. 108-458); ISR Programs; Terrorist Surveillance Program/NSA Electronic Surveillance; Role of the CIA; Role of the FBI; Paramilitary Operations; Regional Concerns; CIA and Allegations of Prisoner Abuse.
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 20 Oct. 2011. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33539.pdf.
Issues in the 112th Congress: Christmas Bombing 2009; ISR Programs; Terrorist Surveillance Program/NSA Electronic Surveillance/FISA; Role of the CIA; Role of the FBI; The Role of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence; Paramilitary Operations and Defense Humint; Regional Concerns; CIA and Allegations of Prisoner Abuse; Congressional Notification Procedures; Civilian Intelligence Personnel System; Government Accountability Office and the Intelligence Community; Intelligence Agencies and Drone Warfare.
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, updated 3 Dec. 2001. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL30252.pdf.
"This report looks at the separate roles and missions and distinct identities of intelligence and law enforcement agencies. Coordinating their efforts has raised significant legal and administrative difficulties that have been only partially overcome.... This report also addresses congressional oversight of the law enforcement-intelligence relationship that is spread among a number of House and Senate committees, each of which has only partial jurisdiction."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Reform After Five Years: The Role of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 22 Jun. 2010. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R41295.pdf.
"Observers are divided over the success of the DNI position and the ODNI.... A number of innovations have been undertaken in the intelligence community to encourage coordination and information sharing.... A widespread perception is that coordinative mechanisms and authorities as currently established are inadequate to the goal of creating a more flexible and agile intelligence effort.... Congress has monitored the work of DNIs and the ODNI, but oversight has thus far been largely informal, given the absence of enacted intelligence authorization legislation since 2004, shortly after passage of the Intelligence Reform Act."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 15 Feb. 2007. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/94-261.pdf.
"Central to consideration of the issue is the composition of the 'intelligence budget.' Intelligence authorization bills have included not just the 'National Intelligence Program' -- the budgets for CIA, DIA, NSA et al. [--] but also a wide variety of other intelligence and intelligence-related efforts conducted by the Defense Department. Shifts of tactical programs into or out of the total intelligence budgets have hitherto been important only to budget analysts; disclosing total intelligence budgets could make such transfers matters of concern to a far larger audience. Legislation reported by the Senate Intelligence Committee in January 2007 (S. 372) would require that funding for the National Intelligence Program be made public but it does not address other intelligence activities."
Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 27 May 2003. Available at: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/21217.pdf.
"Counterterrorism is highly dependent upon human intelligence (humint).... Countering terrorism requires close cooperation between law enforcement and intelligence agencies.... Military operations to counter terrorism are dependent on the availability of precise, real-time intelligence to support bombing campaigns using precision guided munitions."
Best, Richard A. "Leadership of the U.S. Intelligrnce Community: From DCI to DNI." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 2 (Summer 2014): 253-333.
Best produced a long line of top-notch work at the Congressional Research Service, from which he retired in 2011. This article is much of the same, whether or not you agree with him on specific points.. He tracks changes in the organizational mangement of the IC from 1947 to the present. He argues: "The establishment of the DNI in 2004 was the culmination of efforts to address problems in Intelligence Community organization dating back to the Eisenhower administration."
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