Alexander, Martin S. "Did the Deuxième Bureau Work? The Role of Intelligence in French Defense Policy and Strategy, 1919-39." Intelligence and National Security 6, no. 2 (Apr. 1991): 293-333.
"Regarding the fall of France in 1940,... it is to shortcomings in French operational and training practices, rather than to intelligence, that questions need to be directed when reasons are sought for the military defeat."
Alexander, Martin S. "In Lieu of Alliance: The French General Staff's Secret Co-operation with Neutral Belgium, 1936-1940." Journal of Strategic Studies 14, no. 4 (Dec. 1991): 413-427.
Alexander, Martin S. "Introduction: Knowing Your Friends, Assessing Your Allies - Perspectives on Intra-Alliance Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 1-17.
This is Alexander's introduction to Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (Spring 1998): "Spying on friendly powers ... is among the most sensitive type of intelligence work and is often denied, though less so by former directors of French intelligence than by their Anglo-Saxon counterparts."
Alexander, Martin S., and William J. Philpott. "The Entente Cordiale and the Next War: Anglo-French Views on Future Military Co-operation, 1928-1939." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 53-84. Also: In Knowing Your Friends: Intelligence Inside Alliances from 1914 to the Cold War, ed. Martin S. Alexander, 53-84. Alexander, Martin S., ed. Knowing Your Friends: Intelligence Inside Alliances from 1914 to the Cold WarLondon: Frank Cass, 1998.
From Abstract: "Improved Franco-German relations made intelligence co-operation appear unnecessary [during the 1920s].... Only after 1935 did a resurgent Germany spark a revival of Franco-British staff talks. A renewed intelligence effort by Britain endeavored to estimate French armed strength, while France examined Britain's ability to send an expeditionary force to Europe."
Alexander, Martin S., ed. Knowing Your Friends: Intelligence Inside Alliances from 1914 to the Cold War. London: Frank Cass, 1998.
Clark comment: The articles here were originally published in Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (Spring 1998). Click for details on the individual articles.
Nelsen, Choice, Nov. 1998, comments that the individual chapters are "disparate studies ... [whose] only commonality is that all the cases are from the 20th century. Perhaps the greatest weakness of the volume is its irrelevance to the contemporary world." On the other hand, Cohen, 78.2 (1999), sees this as an "excellent collection of articles," and Christensen, Military Review, Jul./Aug. 1999, comments that "[a]nyone who has worked with allies or in combined operations will find much thought provoking material in this collection."
[Liaison/Gen & I&NS 13.1]
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